We are born and raised into being sexual beings. Sexuality exists within system of gender norms- culture, social, historical. Differences understood in binary way between men and women. How gender is conceptualized is changing, and we hope to change it.Sex happens between gendered individuals. How sex occurs comes from social/cultural norms and expectations as a gendered activity. Flag issue of gender essentialism; questioning of social/cultural/historical formations- need to develop frameworks within which to navigate before we get to change. Key dilemma: formations of norms of institutions of heterosexuality. Pacts between men and women map desire and hope with respect to social norms. How do we learn to embody gender and sexuality as a gendered self? Institution of heterosexuality- evolved historically as relations of power. Positioning women as inferior and lacking rights, in contrast to men and sense of entitlement and respect- men- women punished if they don’t buy into that. Women constitute self in terms of femininity, giving pleasure- map of desirability. The inner workings of gender in the public domain are glued together by workings of sexual domain. Need to develop critical thought about this. Homophobia is developed of these norms- hierarchies of power are normalized. Law, customs, norms- cultural scripts too. How are we invited to embody gendered norms in our minds, bodies, and in our actual sexuality? Sexuality ends up an appendage to gender issues. Double standard of gender equality discourse vs. private domain with commercialization of sexuality. Variability and fluidity of sexuality. How sex is understood- norms related to mechanics of the body. Open the debates about understanding the body and how media influences how we perceive and define it. Illiteracy among men and body related to masculinity, power and fear of failure; boys have not had any opening into the discussions of what is happening. Empowering women- a radical shift needs to happen to bring men and boys in compassionately and lovingly to that process. Silences in culture need to be used to create dialogue. Men and boys are essential in navigating sexual identities within culture. New relationships with our own bodies. Shaping of sex and desire by media.
CYP and pregnancies averted is less than half of the story. IPPF believes that young people are sexual beings with the same rights as adults. We believe that young people have the right to participate in and have choice in relation to sexual and reproductive health decisions. In providing services to under-25s, due regard must given to their autonomy as well as their need for protection and privacy. Young people have the right to freely express their sexuality and, in doing so, to be free from violence or harm. IPPF supports young people to achieve their right to sexual and reproductive health/well-being by promoting and providing comprehensive sexuality education that is rights-based and challenges norms that perpetuate gender inequities.
Society , sexuality and pleasure (AIDS 2012)
From choice, a world of possibilities Society Sexuality and PleasureMayaKoumanova,YSAFE CHAIRLuize Ratniece,YSAFE
What is sexual pleasure? Write on a piece of paper what sexual pleasure means to you ( whether you have experienced or whether it is a fantasy) 1-3 words No nameYSAFE Brussels 2012
Sexual Pleasure and Rights What is sexual pleasure? More than having orgasms Intimacy, acceptance, confirmation Gender and pleasure Are sexual rights there to protect against pregnancy, rape, disease and violence, or are they there in relation to eroticism, recreation and pleasure. Is addressing sexual pleasure in our work a luxury?YSAFE Brussels 2012
Public health: us Responsible behaviour Healthy life styles Risks Safety Morality and ethics
Sex Industry Enjoyment Lust Desire Pleasure Fantasies Orgasm
“A majority (78.5%) of gay and bisexuallyidentified men reported having used at leastone type of sex, toy, including dildos (62.1%),non-vibrating cock rings (51.9%), vibrators(49.6%), butt plugs (34.0%), masturbationsleeves (27.9%), and anal beads or balls(19.3%).”(From: Sex Toy Use by Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States , 2012)
Pleasure and srh health: strange bedpartners?Some evidence on positive relationship between sexuality and health: Contraceptive use andsexual enjoyment( Rademakers e.a) Breaking gender roles and sexual enjoyment( USA Bureau of Labour Statistics)
Research “The Association Between Developmental Assets and Sexual Enjoyment Among Emerging Adults” Galinsky & Sonnenstain •Autonomy •Self Esteem •Empathy
How do we think and feel about sex and pleasure?
Myths on gender and sexual pleasure Good sex should always be spontaneous Good sex should always end in an orgasm Good sex is the same as intercourse For good sex you need an erection
Love and sexual pleasure Romantics: do you refuse a life without passion; you never give up on true love. So every time desire does wane, do you believe that love is gone? Realists; do you think that enduring love is more important than hot sex, and that passion makes people do stupid things. It’s dangerous, it creates problems, and it’s a weak foundation for a relationship. So for you love is more important than sex. The initial excitement grows into something else — deep love, mutual respect, shared history and companionship. Diminishing desire is inescapable.
Sexual pleasure in our commitment to young people’s sexual rights Sexuality is an integral of being human for all young people Sexuality and sexual pleasure are important to young people regardless their reproductive desires All young people have the right to freely and fully experience sexuality and gender in a pleasurable, healthy and satisfying way.
Sexual pleasure and youth friendly services A Youth Friendly Health Professional: Accepts young people as sexual beings Listens and respects the experiences of the young person Avoids moralizing Helps to understand what sexual pleasure is
Pleasure in comprehensive sexuality education Anatomy and sexual pleasure Sexual expression and enjoyment sexual consent and sexual coercion Creating mutual respectful and responsible relationships
Sexual Pleasure and young people livingwith HIV
Addressing sexual pleasure with young people It is not just about behaviour itself but what it means to the person(s) involved Consider the social context in which sexual behaviour takes place Have an inclusive approach: sexual orientation as an essential part of oneself Address both sexual enjoyment and sexual abuse Make safer sex more attractive and pleasurable as unsafe sex
Finally…. Recognize the importance of sexuality Take an inclusive, gendered and positive approach to sexuality Recognize the links between different sexuality issues. Support integrated approaches to sexuality Go beyond rights to be free from violence, to support positive rights and rights to pleasure as well Draw inspiration from and connect with the exciting initiatives already happening!