Embedded systems

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Embedded systems

  1. 1. Embedded Systems Microcontrollers & Embedded Processors An Overview By: Ramtin Raji Kermani Junior student of Computer Hardware Eng. Spring 2005 May 16, 2005 Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University “ In the name of God” Scientific Group of CSE Presents :
  2. 2. Embedded Systems <ul><li>What is an Embedded System? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are Embedded Systems used? </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Embedded Systems Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded OS and Software </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul><ul><li>The 8051 Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>A simple project using AT89C51 </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  3. 3. What is and Embedded System? <ul><li>A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface -- watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -- utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program. (Definition from wikipedia.com) </li></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  4. 4. What is and Embedded System? Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  5. 5. ES, Other definitions <ul><li>A special purpose computer built into a larger device . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special purpose: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Embedded systems have a (more or less) well-defined purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Contrast with: general purpose computers (PCs etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Both hardware and software is tailored to application(s), which are well defined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- However, re-programmability is a requirement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built into a larger device: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ESs are (usually) part of a larger device, augmenting its capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  6. 6. ES, Other definitions <ul><li>Any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that uses a computer but does not look like one. </li></ul><ul><li>The microprocessor in an embedded system is like an electric motor in a washing machine. </li></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  7. 7. ES Types & Characteristics <ul><li>Types of Processing unit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardwired logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ES Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictability </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  8. 8. ES: History and Solutions <ul><li>A very little history: ;) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first Embedded System: Apollo Guidance Computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embedded Systems Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded Processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Signal processors </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  9. 9. Where are Embedded Systems used? Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  10. 10. Where are Embedded Systems used? <ul><li>Signal processing systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time video, DVD players, Medical equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network routers, switches, firewalls, mass transit systems, Elevators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Small” systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones, pagers, home appliances, toys, smartcards, MP3 players, PDAs, digital cameras, sensors, pc keyboard & mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern cars: Up to 100 or more processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine control unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABS systems (Anti Lock Brake systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostics and Security systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessories (doors, windows etc) </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  11. 11. Typical Embedded Systems Hardware <ul><li>Commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. wireless radios, sensors, I/O devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application-Specific ICs (ASICs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICs tailored to meet application needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good performance for their intended task(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original ESs were ASICs only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain-specific processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DSPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcontrollers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microprocessors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Purpose Processors </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  12. 12. New trends in ES HW <ul><li>Systems-on-chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usual (or desired) specs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32-bit RISC CPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in interfaces to RAM and ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in DMA, interrupt and timing controllers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in interfaces to disk or flash memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in Ethernet/802.11 interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in LCD/CRT interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New SOCs appearing almost every week! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel StrongARM SA-1110 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola PowerPC MPC823e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEC VR4181 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many, many more </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  13. 13. Embedded OS and Software <ul><li>Principal role: ‘Not transformation of data but interaction with physical world’ </li></ul><ul><li>Acquires properties of physical world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not terminate (unless it fails) </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  14. 14. Embedded Operating Systems: <ul><li>Office-style OSes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PalmOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WindowsCE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RTOSes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VxWorks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QNX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux is already ubiquitous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of different devices are using it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4936596231.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous commercial + open source products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TinyOS </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  15. 15. What is a Microcontroller? <ul><li>A microcontroller is an entire computer manufactured on a single chip. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a high concentration of on-chip facilities such as serial ports, parallel input/output ports, timers, counters, interrupt control, analog-to-digital converters, random access memory, read only memory, etc. </li></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  16. 16. The 8051 Microcontroller: <ul><li>The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The 8051 family characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4K Bytes ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>128 Bytes RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two timer/counters (16 bit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A serial port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 general purpose parallel input/output port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 8051 can address 64K of external data memory and 64K of External program memory. </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  17. 17. Microcontroller 8051 internal Architecture Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  18. 18. 8051 pin description <ul><li>8051 other family members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8751 (has EPROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8951 (has EEPROM) </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  19. 19. A simple project using AT89C51 <ul><li>Here we’ve designed, built and programmed a digital BCD counter that counts from 0 to 9 on a 7Segment display. </li></ul><ul><li>We use register A as Accumulator, in each delayed cycle the accumulator increments by one and result is showed on the 7segment display. </li></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  20. 20. A simple project using AT89C51 Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  21. 21. References <ul><li>Web References: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.google.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.embedded.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.linuxdevices.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mani Srivastava’s EE202A class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://nesl.ee.ucla.edu/courses/ee202a/2002f </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Lee, “Embedded Software” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/497408.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Books: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Mazidi, M.A. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessors: Uffenbeck, john. </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  22. 22. At the End … <ul><li>Thanks for your Attention … ;) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramtin Raji Kermani </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring 2005 </li></ul></ul>Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005

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