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Body Area Network


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A Body Area Network is formally defined by IEEE 802.15 as, "a communication
standard optimized for low power devices and operation on, in or around the human body
(but not limited to humans) to serve a variety of applications including medical, consumer
electronics / personal entertainment and other" [IEEE 802.15]. In more common terms, a
Body Area Network is a system of devices in close proximity to a person’s body that
cooperate for the benefit of the user.

This presentation was presented by Nawal KIshore Kundan under the guidance of Ms. Ancy Zacharia.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Body Area Network

  1. 1. BODY AREA NETWORKS<br />Guide:<br />Ms. Ancy Zachariah<br />By :<br />NawalKishoreKundan<br />Roll No. 48<br />Computer Science, SOE<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Introduction<br />Body Sensor Network<br />BAN Architecture<br />Applications<br />Challenges & Security<br />Conclusions<br />References<br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION<br />Formal Definition by IEEE 802.15<br />“a communication standard optimized for low power devices and operation on, in or around the human body (but not limited to humans) to serve a variety of applications including medical, consumer electronics / personal entertainment and other”<br />A Body Area Network is a system of devices in close proximity to a person body that cooperate for the benefit of the user.<br />
  4. 4. Data Rate vs Power<br />
  5. 5. Body Sensor Network<br />BSN technology represents the lower bound of power and bandwidth from the BAN<br />Defined by Professor Guang-ZhongYang in 2006<br />Managed BSN (MBSN)<br />Eg. MobiHealth & CodeBlue<br /><ul><li>Autonomous BSN (ABSN)</li></ul>Eg. Human++<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Managed BSN<br />A managed body sensor network (MBSN) is defined as a system where the third party makes decisions based the data collected from one or many BSN.<br />Eg. MobiHealth & CodeBlue<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Autonomous BSN<br />Autonomous body sensor networks (ABSN) and MBSN share the same goals, but they accomplish them in different ways.<br />ABSN introduce actuators in addition to the sensors to allow the BSN to effect change on the users body.<br />
  10. 10. Autonomous BSN<br />
  11. 11. BAN Architecture<br />Hardware Architecture<br />Software Architecture<br />Characteristics<br />
  12. 12. Hardware Architecture of BAN<br />BAN network (in general terms) is also known as Wireless BAN or Body Sensor Network (BSN)<br />An application technology aimed at improving user comfort.<br />Devices used:<br />Sensor node <br /> Actuator node<br />Personal device<br />
  13. 13. Sensor Node:<br />Gathers data on physical stimuli, processes the data if necessary and reports this information wirelessly. Consists of several components: <br />Sensor hardware<br />A power unit<br />A processor, memory and <br />A transmitter or transceiver.<br />Eg : i Rhythm <br />
  14. 14. Actuator Node:<br />Acts according to data received from sensors / through interaction with the user.<br />Components similar to sensors:<br />Actuator hardware (e.g. hardware for medicine administration, including a reservoir to hold the medicine)<br />A power unit, a processor, memory and <br />A receiver or transceiver<br />
  15. 15. Personal Device:<br />Gathers all the information acquired by the sensors and actuators <br />Informs User (i.e. the patient, a nurse, a doc etc.) via an external gateway, an actuator or a display/LEDS on the device. <br />Components:<br />A power unit, a (large) processor, memory and a transceiver.<br />Also called a Body Control Unit (BCU) , body gateway or a sink.<br />E.g.: PDA <br />
  16. 16. Software Architecture of BAN<br />Software have a well-defined interface to integrate hardware and application programs.<br />Software include three levels: firmware, OS and application software stacks. <br />OS can be Symbian OS, Android OS, Blackberry OS, Windows mobile etc.<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Characteristics of BAN<br />Energy efficiency<br />Simple nodes<br />Heterogeneous nodes<br />Cost structure<br />Combination of a wireless network and a wired network<br />
  19. 19. Applications<br /><ul><li> Medical Heath Care
  20. 20. Sports and Fitness Monitoring
  21. 21. Wireless Audio
  22. 22. Mobile Device Integration
  23. 23. Personal Video Devices
  24. 24. Military
  25. 25. Security
  26. 26. Gaming</li></li></ul><li>Medical Health Care<br />Medical application<br />Vital patient data<br />Wireless sensors<br />Link with bedside monitor<br />Count on 10 – 20 sensors<br />Five similar networks in range<br />Minimum setup interaction<br />Potentially wide application<br />Total traffic / patient < 10 kbps<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Displaying Data<br /><ul><li>In Handheld devices or PCs
  29. 29. Monitoring
  30. 30. Heart rate
  31. 31. Body temperature
  32. 32. Sleep pattern
  33. 33. Glucose level
  34. 34. Foetal development etc…</li></li></ul><li>Previous Technology<br /><ul><li>Holter Monitor
  35. 35. Obsolete technology
  36. 36. Inefficient and Not User Friendly
  37. 37. Lots of wires
  38. 38. Soon to be buried
  39. 39. Just 24 hr battery backup</li></li></ul><li>New Technology<br />Small<br />Efficient<br />Everything that the latter technology wasn't<br />Up to 2 weeks usage.<br />
  40. 40. Fitness Monitoring<br />Central device is MP3 player<br />Wireless headset included<br />Expand functionality<br />Speed, distance<br />Heart rate, respiration monitor<br />Temperature sensor<br />Pacing information<br />Location information<br />Wristwatch display unit<br />Etc. <br />Total system load < 500 kbps<br />Synchronization may go faster<br />
  41. 41. Wearable Audio<br />Central device is headset<br />Stereo audio, microphone<br />Connected devices<br />Cellular phone<br />MP3 player, PDA<br />CD audio player<br />AP at home<br />Handsfreecar<br />Remote control<br />Others<br />Requires priority mechanism<br />Network load < 500 kbps<br />
  42. 42. Mobile Device Centric<br />Mobile terminal is central point<br />Covers broad set of data<br />Sensors – vital, other<br />Headset<br />Peripheral devices<br />Handsfree / car<br />Provide gateway to outside<br />Offload sensor data, other<br />Requires priority mechanism<br />Network load < 500 kbps<br />
  43. 43. Personal Video<br />Central device is video camera<br />Camera sensor, recording, display<br />Stream video content SDTV, HDTV<br />Connect other devices<br />Personal storage device<br />Playback device with large display<br />Remote beamfinder<br />Location information (meta data)<br />Mobile communications device (MMS)<br />Home media server (sync)<br />Total traffic load: 10 – 60 Mbps<br />
  44. 44. Remote Control & I/O Devices<br />Remote control device<br />Increase consumer convenience<br />Makes headset control practical<br />Stand-alone vs shared function<br />Combine with wristwatch display <br />Printers<br />Identification, storage<br />Wireless pen<br />Complement BAN functionality<br />
  45. 45. Challenges<br /><ul><li> Interoperability
  46. 46. System Devices
  47. 47. System and Device level Security
  48. 48. Invasion of Privacy
  49. 49. Sensor Validation
  50. 50. Data Consistency</li></li></ul><li>GENERAL SECURITY THREATS<br />Eavesdropping/Disclosure/Interception<br />Interruption/Communication jamming <br /> Injection and modification of data<br /> Unauthorized access <br />
  51. 51. PERSONAL DEVICE- ORIENTED SECURITY THREATS<br />Stolen personal device.<br />Outdated Application software.<br />Unprepared communication shutdown <br />Misreading <br />Input error <br />
  52. 52. Conclusions<br />BANs are enabling human-centric sensing for a variety of intriguing applications in healthcare, fitness and entertainment.<br />But such networks must demonstrate enough value for users to overcome inhibitions related to inconvenience and general discomfort<br />Also the promise of this technology should not be restricted to one area.<br /> Fitness and entertainment are taking new directions.<br />
  53. 53. The architecture that captures body motion for medical assessment is equally adept at capturing body motion for a videogame.<br /> New sensors will only increase the breadth of potential applications and market opportunities and propel this technology into applications formerly depicted only in science fiction.<br />
  54. 54. References<br /> <br />i. IEEE CONFERENCES<br /> Introduction of SG-BAN in IEEE 802.15 with Related Discussion Huan-Bang Li; Kohno, R Ultra-Wideband, 2007. ICUWB2007. IEEE International Conference on  Digital Object identifier: 10.1109/ICUWB.2007.4380929 Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): 134 – 139.<br />II. Schmidt et al., "Body Area Network BAN--a key infrastructure element for patient-centred medical applications," BiomedizinischeTechnik. Biomedical engineering 2002, p365-368<br />III. Microsoft, "Method and apparatus for transmitting power and data using the human body," Patent No: 6,754,472<br />