Buildng Traffc Smulator(BTS)

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Buildng Traffc Smulator(BTS)

  1. 4. Hierarchy of time phase of total evacuation time in an emergency situation
  2. 5. <ul><li>The pre-movement time is about three times longer than the actual movement time </li></ul><ul><li>Critical time ( Tcrit ) – It is defined as a time limit when the evacuation of people is safe and probably no injuries or deaths will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Tp + Tr + Te ≤ Tcrit </li></ul>
  3. 6. <ul><li>Building Traffic Simulator (BTS) is a software system for simulating passenger traffic in an arbitrary building. </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes:- </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze the performance of an elevator system. </li></ul><ul><li>To demonstrate elevator systems for customers. </li></ul><ul><li>To test elevator group control software. </li></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><li>BTS’s main design choices are affected by </li></ul><ul><li>The requirement to be portable . </li></ul><ul><li>Able to run in everyday PCs. </li></ul><ul><li>COM and Active X technologies were chosen to make BTS run in well known platform i.e. Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Portability can be achieved by separating the code in portable and non-portable component. </li></ul>
  5. 8. Portability <ul><li>Portable </li></ul><ul><li>C++ code </li></ul><ul><li>Can be easily ported to any platform </li></ul><ul><li>It is mainly for non-window version PC’s </li></ul><ul><li>C++ library </li></ul><ul><li>Non-portable </li></ul><ul><li>visual C++ code, visual basic </li></ul><ul><li>It contain main program, displays, user interface, database interface component </li></ul><ul><li>Windows specific libraries </li></ul>
  6. 9. Figure 2:- Main BTS components and their interaction during the simulation
  7. 10. Figure 3:- Example of process-oriented and event oriented code
  8. 11. <ul><li>The BTS interface has a building design view for constructing a specified building. </li></ul><ul><li>The user can draw the floor shape of the building for each floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>The user can draw the floors where the building shape is changed. </li></ul><ul><li>The elevator and escalator groups can be dropped in their correct positions on the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual parameters for the building, elevators, escalators and passenger traffic are defined . </li></ul>
  9. 12. Figure 5:- Design view of the BTS simulator
  10. 13. Figure 4:- Parameter to be defined before simulation
  11. 14. <ul><li>A 24-hour traffic period in a building can be simulated. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of a 24-hour simulation, several simulations can be run in series with different traffic intensities for some traffic pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>This helps in identify the traffic intensity where the handling capacity of the elevator group is reached with the specified traffic pattern. </li></ul>
  12. 16. Figure 5 :- Lobby view with typical passenger groups
  13. 17. <ul><li>A good animation is more illustrative and convincing than statistical figures. </li></ul><ul><li>One can also notice if the elevator system is clearly insufficient or oversized. </li></ul><ul><li>BTS has two animation screens </li></ul><ul><li>Two-dimensional traffic display for one elevator group. </li></ul><ul><li>Three-dimensional animation that shows the whole building. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Figure 6 :- BTS building visualizer
  15. 19. Figure 7:- The main window of BTS showing a 3-D view [1] and 2-D view of an elevator group.
  16. 20. <ul><li>It help us in finding these questions:- </li></ul><ul><li>How long a passenger has to wait for an elevator. </li></ul><ul><li>How long the whole passenger journey lasts. </li></ul><ul><li>How fast the building is filled or evacuate. </li></ul><ul><li>What the assumed energy consumption is. </li></ul><ul><li>How many people in the building can be served by the defined transportation devices . </li></ul><ul><li>Is the current elevator arrangement is sufficient for the assumed population. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Elevators are planned for peak-up situation. <ul><li>Residential buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Handling capacity- 5%-7.5% in five minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Filling time- 67-100 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Office buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Handling capacity- 13%-18% in five minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Filling time- 29-40 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Elevators should be capable of evacuating the population within 15-30 minutes </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Elevators can transport 1.5 times more passengers in down - peak than in up-peak. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevators can transport 1.8 times more passengers in down-peak than in up-peak with the help of BTS and modern controls. </li></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><li>Evacuation becomes faster with double-deck or triple-deck elevators. </li></ul><ul><li>In double-deck elevator egress time is reduced to 50-60% </li></ul><ul><li>of the time with single-deck elevator. </li></ul><ul><li>in triple deck the time further reduces to 40%. </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>Let us take 3 cases:- </li></ul><ul><li>All floors are served by all cars. </li></ul><ul><li>The served floors are divided into two zones that are each served by half of the elevators. </li></ul><ul><li>Passengers gather at every third floor and elevators serve only those floors . </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning does not significantly decrease the evacuation time . </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>The movement of people in stairs can be modeled as unified crowd flows. </li></ul><ul><li>According to flow model egress time is max. of two </li></ul>Where t1 egress time (congestion) tn egress time (free walk) n number of floors N number of people per floor and exit Fs nominal occupant flow on stairs (persons/m/s) W width of the staircase ts walking time between adjacent floors (free walk)
  22. 26. <ul><li>Assumption for study of evacuation by both ways </li></ul><ul><li>Stairs should be placed in the proximity of the elevators. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the population use elevators and half of them use stairs. </li></ul>Figure X Figure Y
  23. 27. <ul><li>BTS, an unique tool for studying evacuation and traffic of tall buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide better and safer transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Well planned elevators and stairs provide fast ways to evacuate people. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevator evacuation times were calculated from the up-peak handling capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Handling capacity of a elevator group can be considerably increased with double-deck or triple-deck elevators. </li></ul><ul><li>Down peak handling capacity is greater than up-peak handling capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>In tall buildings, shuttle elevators may become a bottle-neck during the evacuation and down-peak. </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>Friedman, R. (1992). An International Survey of Computer Models for Fire and Smoke. Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 4, 81-92. </li></ul><ul><li>McCaffrey, B.J. and Rockett, J.A., Journal of Research, National Bureau of Standards, 82: 107 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>Pauls, J. (1987). “Calculating Evacuation Times for Tall Buildings.” Fire Safety Journal, 12, pp. 237-245. </li></ul><ul><li>Browne, J.J. and J.J. Kelly. 1968. “Simulation of Elevator System for World’s Tallest Buildings.” Transportation Science, Volume 2, No. 1. pp. 35-56. </li></ul><ul><li>Leinonen, R. 1999. “Building Traffic Simulator.” Master of Science thesis, Technical University of Helsinki. </li></ul><ul><li>Law A.M., Kelton W.D. (2000). Simulation Modeling and Analysis 3 rd edition, McGrawHill. </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, B.W. 1973. “On Building Simulation Models of Lift Systems.” Build International, Vol. 6, pp 225-243. </li></ul><ul><li>BS 5588-8. 1999. Fire Precautions in the Design, Construction and Use of Buildings. Part 8: Code of Practice for Means of Escape for Disabled People. </li></ul><ul><li>Strakosch, G.R. 1967. Vertical Transportation: Elevators and Escalators. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p365. </li></ul><ul><li>Barney, G.C., D.A. Cooper and J. Inglis. 1997. Elevator & Escalator Micropedia. IAEE Publications, Heron Syke, Brigsteer, Kemdal, Cumbria, England. </li></ul><ul><li>BSEN 81-72. 2003. Safety Rules for Construction and Installation of Lifts: Particular Applications for Passenger and Goods Passenger Lifts Firefighters Lifts. </li></ul>

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