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البحث الاجرائي


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البحث الاجرائي

  1. 1. Professional Development Through Action Research
  2. 2. OVERVIEW Defining „research‟ and „action research‟  Differentiating „classroom‟, „teacher‟ and „action research‟  Questions that are appropriate for action research  Steps in the action research process  Payoffs, problems and solutions  Developing an action plan 
  3. 3. PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION How do you think „action research‟ differs from „regular research‟?  What are the differences between „classroom‟, „teacher‟ and „action research‟  What are some of the questions that might be appropriate for action research? 
  4. 4. DEFINING RESEARCH Research“the organized, systematic search for answers to the questions we ask” (Hatch and Lazaraton, 1991:1).  A “systematic process of inquiry consisting of three elements or components: (1) a question, problem or hypothesis, (2) data, and (3) analysis and interpretation” (Nunan, 1992:3). 
  5. 5. AN ALTERNATIVE PARADIGM ACTION RESEARCH An iterative cycle of planning, observing, acting and reflecting  Involves “small-scale interventions”  Is done by practitioners in naturalistic settings  Involves a wide range of data types 
  6. 6. Goals of Action Research  Action Research has two main goals: 1. To seek local understanding 2. To bring about improvement in the context under investigation
  7. 7. Three Terms That Are Sometimes Confused Classroom Research: Location: Where?  Action Research: Method: How?  Teacher Research: Agency: Who? 
  8. 8. Classroom Research, Action Research &Teacher Research& Classroom research can be conducted by teachers or other researchers, using many research methods  Teacher research can be done inside or outside of classrooms by teachers, using many research methods 
  9. 9. Classroom Research, Action Research &Teacher Research Action research can be conducted by teachers and other researchers, both inside and outside classrooms  Action research can be conducted by teachers in their own classrooms 
  10. 10. THREE TERMS THAT ARE SOMETIMES CONFUSED 2.Teacher Research 1.Classroom Research 4.Classroom Action Research by Teacher 3.Action Research
  11. 11. 1ST DISCUSSION TASK Write down three issues / questions you have or things you would like to know about your teaching and/or your students‟ learning. Share you issues / questions in groups and explain why you chose these.
  12. 12. Steps in doing Action Research The research is initiated by a question, problem or puzzle  An action is initiated  Relevant data are collected  The data are analyzed and interpreted  The results are made public  The process is under the control of the classroom teacher 
  13. 13. THE ACTION RESEARCH CYCLE Reflect Plan Observe Act
  14. 14. THE ACTION RESEARCH CYCLE plan Act Reflect Observe
  15. 15. Example of Action Research : Cycle 1Step 1: Problem/puzzle identification -- “Student motivation is declining over the course of the semester.”  Step 2: Preliminary investigation -“Interviews with students confirm my suspicion.” 
  16. 16. Example of Action Research: Cycle 1 Step 3: Hypothesis formation “Students do not feel they are making progress from their efforts. Learning logs will provide evidence to learners of progress.”  Step 4: Plan intervention -“Get students to complete learning logs each week.” 
  17. 17. Example of Action Research: Cycle 1  Step 5: Initiate action and observe outcomes -“Motivation is improving, but not as rapidly as desired.”
  18. 18. Example of Action Research: Cycle 2 Step 6: Identification of follow-up puzzle - “How can Iensure more involvement and commitment by learners to their own learning process?”  Step 7: Second hypothesis “Developing a reflective learning attitude on the part of learners will enhance involvement and motivation to learn.” 
  19. 19. Example of Action Research: Cycle 2  Step 8: Second round of action and observation “At the end of each unit of work, learners complete a selfevaluation of learning progress and attainment of goals.”
  20. 20. 2ND REFLECTION& DISCUSSION TASK  What do you see as the payoffs, problems and solutions in doing action research?
  21. 21. PAYOFFS 1. Each teacher learned more about their own theories, or frames for teaching  2. The frames for teaching of the participants were related to the bigger questions of second language education and education in general.  3. Action research was a powerful means of facilitating change (Lewis,1992). 
  22. 22. CHANGES REPORTED BY TEACHERS Teachers: Became less directive Used a greater variety of behaviors Praised more, criticized less Were more aware of students‟ feelings Used the target language more Incorporated student ideas more 
  23. 23. CHANGES REPORTED BY TEACHERS Teachers: Spent less class time talking Made greater use of group work Elicited more divergent open-ended student responses Made greater effort to get students to participate
  24. 24. PROBLEMS / CHALLENGES Lack of time  Lack of expertise  Lack of ongoing support  Fear of being revealed as an incompetent teacher  Fear of producing a public account of their research for a wider (unknown) audience 
  25. 25. SOLUTIONS There must be someone „on the ground‟ to „own‟ the project.  Experienced advisors must be available.  Teachers must be given adequate training in how to do research. 
  26. 26. SOLUTIONS Provide teachers with release time from some face-to-face teaching.  Create collaborative teams.  Start small. 
  27. 27. RETURNING TO REFLECTION TASK 1 1. Review one of the three questions you have or things you would like to know about your teaching and/or your students‟ learning. Compare these ideas with one or two other people.  2. Brainstorm „next steps‟ in researching your question. 
  28. 28. Steps in the Action Research Process 1. Problem identification  2. Preliminary investigation  3. Hypothesis formation  4. Intervention  5. Data collection  6. Data analysis  7. Expected outcomes 
  29. 29. REFLECTION AND DISCUSSION TASK 3  Using the steps in the action research process as a template, and the issue / question you developed earlier, create your own action research plan.
  30. 30. FURTHER INFORMATION Bailey, K.M., A. Curtis and D. Nunan. 2001. Pursuing Professional Development: The Self as Source. Boston: Thomson Learning / Heinle Burns, A. 1999. Collaborative Action Research for English Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Edge, J. (ed.) 2001. Action Research. Alexandria, VA: TESOL. Nunan, D. and Bailey, K.M. (2009). Exploring second language classroom research. Boston: Heinle. Wallace, M.J. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.