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Presentation graduation project

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Presentation of graduation project at TU Delft, faculty of Architecture.

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Presentation graduation project

  1. 1. the wall 墙城 The re-discovery of ordinary public places in an alternative urban architectural model for Chinese cities – The case of Chengdu Jasper Nijveldt P5 3-2-2012
  2. 2. Top 50 cities 2025 |Urban economic clout moves east
  3. 3. And 400 million farmersthen moved in?
  4. 4. And what if they also want an Ipad?
  5. 5. And a new car?
  6. 6. How will the cities look like?
  7. 7. How will cities grow?
  8. 8. How will you move around?
  9. 9. Can you breathe normally?
  10. 10. Would it be dense?
  11. 11. Chinese?
  12. 12. Or will everybody livein sprawled suburbs?
  13. 13. fingermodel doomsday THE WALL THE WALL on every scale 156 KM2
  14. 14. the wall theory and zoom in reflection neighborhood
  15. 15. context |URBAN POPULATION Compound annual growth rate, 2005–25 Millions of people % 926 2.4 120 6.9 104 1.1 Megacities (10+) 572 32 316 3.4 Big cities 84 (5–10) Midsized cities 161 (1.5–5) 233 2.2 Small cities 150 (0.5–1.5) Big towns 0.3 145 154 (<0.5) 2005 2025 49 Source: McKinsey Global Institute China All City model; McKinsey Global Institute analysis
  16. 16. context |URBAN POPULATION 1.000.000.000 2030
  17. 17. context |URBAN POPULATION 1/8 of the world will live in a Chinese city
  18. 18. context |URBAN POPULATION One New York every two years
  19. 19. context |SUGGESTED GROWTH PATTERN ECONOMY RESOURCES ENVIRONMENTExhibit 7 Exhibit 9 Exhibit 7 Exhibit 8 Exhibit 9 Exhibit 8Concentrated growth 7scenariosgrowth generate the highest Exhibit would scenarios would generate the highest Concentrated growth would entail higher energy consumption Exhibit 8 Concentrated growth would entail higher energy consumption Concentrated urbanization would contain the loss of arable land of arable land Exhibit 9 Concentrated growth scenarios would generate the highest Concentrated urbanization would contain the loss Concentratedper capita GDP per capita GDP but also higher efficiencyhigher efficiency higher energy consumption Concentrated growth would entail but also Concentrated urbanization would contain the loss of arable land per capita GDP but also higher efficiency China total arable land China total China total arable land Million hectares arable land Urban energy intensity Urban GDP Urban energy demand Million hectares Urban population Urban GDP Urban GDP/capita Urban energy energy intensity 2000 BTU per renminbi Urban intensity Renminbi trillion, GDP Urban Urban GDP QBTUs Urban energy demand Million hectares Urban energy demand Million people Urban Renminbi trillion, 2000Urban GDP Urbanpopulation population Urban GDP Urban GDP/capita Urban GDP/capita Renminbi thousand, 2000 BTU per renminbi BTU per renminbi RenminbiRenminbi trillion, 2000 trillion, 2000 QBTUs QBTUs Loss Loss Million people Million people Renminbi trillion, 2000 Renminbi thousand, 20002000 Renminbi trillion, 2000 Renminbi thousand, Loss 2005–2025, 2005–2025, 2005 4,917 12 59 % 2005–2025, Exhibit 7 2005 2005 4,917 4,91712 8 12 59 125 % %Exhibit 9 2005 573 12 21 Exhibit 59 125 125 2005 2005 573 573 1212 21 21 Concentrated growth scenarios would generate the highest Concentrated growth would entail 120 120 higher 120 energy consumption Central government Central government Central government target minimum for 2010 Concentrated Supercities 1,926 68 131 Supercitiesper capita GDP Supercities 917 Supercities 917 917 68 68 68 76 76 76 Supercities Supercities 1,926 1,926 but also higher efficiency131 115 68 68 131 target minimumtarget minimum for 2010 for 2010 –7 –7 115 115 Hub Hub and spoke and spoke –7 Hub and spoke China total ara +20% +20% +20% Supercities Supercities –8 Hub and spoke Hub and spoke 2,088 2,088 2,088 68 68 142 142 110142 110 Supercities –8 –8 Hub and spoke 930 Hub and spoke Hub and spoke 930 930 68 68 68 75 75 75 Hub and spoke 68 Urban energy intensity 110 Urban GDP Urban energy demand Million hectares Urban population Urban GDP Urban GDP/capita BTU per renminbi 105 105 Renminbi trillion, 2000 QBTUs Distributed Distributed 105 Distributed Distributed Distributed 944 Million people 60 944 Renminbi trillion, 2000 growth Renminbi Distributed 2,317 60 65 65 growth thousand, 2000 2,317 2,317 60 60 60 139 139 139 growth growth 944 60 65 growth 100 –20 growth 100 100 –20 Distributed growth Distributed growth Distributed growth –20 Townization Townization935 935 54 54 62 62 Townization Townization Townization2,278 2,278 2005 2,278 54 54 54 123 123 4,917 95 123 95 12 59 Townization Townization –22–22 125 2005Townization 573 935 54 12 62 21 95 Townization –22 +15% 0 0 +26% +26% +26% +23% +23% +23% +15% +15% 2005 2005 0 2010 2010 2005 2015 2015 2010 2020 2020 2015 2025 2025 2020 120 2025 Supercities 1,926 68 131 Supercities 917 68 76 Source: McKinsey Global Institute China All City Model; McKinsey Global Institute analysis 115 contain loss of arable142 landSource: McKinsey Global Institute China All City Model; McKinsey Global Institute analysis 8 9 10 Source: McKinsey Global Institute China All City Model; McKinsey Global Institute analysis 10 Generate highest per capita GDP higher efficienctand spoke energy, 2,088 Hub use of More 8 9 8 +20% 9 10 68 110 Hub and spoke 930 68 75 effective control of pollution 105 Distributed Distributed growth 2,317 60 139 944 60 65 growth 100 Townization 2,278 54 123 95 Townization 935 54 62 +15% 0 +26% +23% 2005 Source: McKinsey Global Institute China All City Model; McKinsey Global Institute analysis 8 9
  20. 20. context |URBAN CHINA Shenyang Beijing Tianjin Zhengzhou Xuzhou Xi’an Shanghai Chengdu Wuhan Chongqing 1 Chinese cities in 2010 Shenzhen Hong Kong population > 5 mln Guangzhou population > 7 mln population > 10 mln * including agglomerations Dongguang and Foshan
  21. 21. context |2-5-2000
  22. 22. context |1-5-2003
  23. 23. context |26-7-2006
  24. 24. context |4-8-2009
  25. 25. context |2011
  26. 26. context |2011
  27. 27. context |2011
  28. 28. context |2011
  29. 29. context |FDI ACCELERATES GROWTHForeign Direct Investment (FDI) is highly active inChengdu last five years, five times more than Chinese average. Chengdu: 5 times more than Chinese average • In 2009, Chengdu utilised USD 2.8 billion in FDI, with an annual growth rate of 24.4 percent. The utilised FDI from 2005 to 2009 has been growing at a CAGR of 50.2 percent each year, compared to the national rate of 10.5 percent FDI generates far more growth than earlier forms of industrializationURBAN AREA, Chengdu (sqkm) 400 350 300 X 1,5 250 200 150 100 50 economic reform industrialization, export, manufacturing Global, FDI ? 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
  30. 30. problem| POLLUTION Chengdu “The haze in Chengdu is pervasive. It is said that if a dog sees the sun, he will bark at(NASA) the intruder.”
  31. 31. problem| POLLUTION
  32. 32. problem| NEXT STEP
  33. 33. problem |AREA NEEDED 2010 2030 2050 POTENTIAL THE WALL 12.2 16.7 20.3 27.5 2050 27X27 KM 2030 20X20 KM
  34. 34. problem |DOOMSDAY FINGER MODEL 2010 2030 2050 POTENTIAL THE WALL 12.2 16.7 20.3 27.5URBAN AREA, Chengdu (sqkm) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 economic reform industrialization, export, Global, manufacturing FDI 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 AVERAGE SPEED city centre, Chengdu (kmph) 25 20 15 biking 10 5 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 average during rush hour
  35. 35. proposal |THE WALL 2010 2030 2050 POTENTIAL THE WALL 12.2 16.7 20.3 27.5URBAN AREA, Chengdu (sqkm) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 economic reform industrialization, export, Global, manufacturing FDI 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 AVERAGE SPEED city centre, Chengdu (kmph) 25 20 15 biking 156 KM2 10 5 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 ¥ average during rush hour
  36. 36. proposal |THE WALL | unroll the wall 2010 2030 2050 POTENTIAL THE WALL 12.2 16.7 20.3 27.5max potential 100.000 p/sqkm Den Helder+ 15.600.000 156km2 MaastDen Helder 312km 312km 56km2 Maastricht
  37. 37. x their impact on pollution. Because of severe NO x problems in a supercities the fact that scenario, fuel-cell buses could become relevant despiteproposal |THE WALL | savingspollution secure would miss the bar to justify the energy air that these would sources scenario, fuel-cell buses could become relevant would secure would miss the bar to justify energy savings that these despite the fact that the investments on a purely economic basis under all energy-price scenario investments on a purely economic basis under all energy-price scenarios. Exhibit 6.10 Exhibit 6.10 Exhibit 6.10 Exhibit 6.10 Aggressive transport policies and emission standards could mitig Aggressive transportsupercities’ pollution. Because of severe NO could mitigate policies and emission issues their impact on air-quality standards x problems in a supercities SHENZHEN E supercities’ air-quality issuesfuel-cell buses could become relevant despite the fact that the Estimated NOx concentrations* scenario, SHENZHEN EXAMPLE Estimated NOx concentrations*per msavings that these would secure would miss the bar to justify the mgenergy 3, 2025 OTHER mg per m3, 2025 investments on a purely economic basis under all energy-price scenarios. AGRICULTURE 2.89 COMMERCIAL AND Exhibit 6.10 2.89 - 40% Exhibit 6.10 RESIDENTIAL HEATING Aggressive transport policies and emission standards could mitigate CONSUMER AND - 40% supercities’ air-quality issues SHENZHEN EXAMPLE -90% COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Estimated NOx concentrations* mg per m3, 2025 2.89 - 40% -90% 52% - 50% 27% - 50% -90% - 50% 0.29 0.29 TRANSPORT Base Expanded Tightened 0.29 Target (Level INDUSTRY forecastExpanded transit, emissions public Tightened III standard) Base Expanded Tightened Base density, (Level Target fleet Target (Level forecast public transit, emissions industry III standard) forecast public transit, emissions density, fleet industry III standard) density, fleet industry * Assuming constant concentration factor; includesfactor; includes only transportation-related * Assuming a a constant concentration only transportation-related measures; further potential may measures; further potentia exist in,e.g., NOxNOx scrubbers on power plants in addition to SO2 scrubbers. exist in, e.g., scrubbers on power plants in addition to SO2 scrubbers. source: EPA 2008 Source: Literature search; McKinsey Global Institute analysis * Assuming a constant concentration factor; includes only transportation-related measures; further potential may Source: Literature search; McKinsey Global Institute analysis 88 exist in, e.g., NOx scrubbers on power plants in addition to SO2 scrubbers. Exhibit 6.11 Source: Literature search; McKinsey Global Institute analysis 88 Exhibit 6.11 Exhibit 6.11 construction can cut PM10 significantly and help bring Measures in megacity Exhibit 6.11 pollution under control Exhibit 6.11 Exhibit 6.11 Measures in construction can cut PM10 significantly and help brin Shenzhen’s estimated PM 10 megacity cut PM10 significantly and help bring Measures in construction can 2025 Million tonne,pollution under control , 2025 as a supercity PM emissions from construction 10 concentration mg/m 3 megacity pollution under control 116 0.29 0.06 Shenzhen’s estimated PM10
  38. 38. TRANSPORT TRANSPORT proposal |THE WALL | air pollution sources DENSITY DENSITY LOCALISED LOCALISED GREEN GREEN FEEDER SYSTEM FEEDER SYSTEM HOUSES HOUSES TRANSPORT TRANSPORT URBAN GROWING CITY URBAN GROWING CITY SPRAWL RELIESSPRAWL USE ON CAR RELIES ON CAR USE DENSITY DENSITY LOCALISED LOCALISED GREEN GREEN FEEDER SYSTEM FEEDER SYSTEM HOUSES HOUSESNew transport system URBAN SPRAWL GROWING CITY URBAN GROWING CITY RELIES ON CAR USERELIES ON CAR USE SPRAWL ? ? O2 O2 CO2 CO2 ? ? O2 O2 CO2 CO2 EXISTING EXISTING UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND CARBON CARBON EXISTING EXISTING METRO SYSTEM METRO SYSTEM PARKING PARKING CAPTURE CAPTURE METRO SYSTEM METRO SYSTEM EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM EXISTING EXISTING UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUNDCARBON CARBON EXISTING EXISTING METRO SYSTEM METRO SYSTEM PARKING PARKING CAPTURE CAPTURE METRO SYSTEM METRO SYSTEM EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED-SYSTEM THE WALL CLUSTERED SYSTEM INDUSTRY INDUSTRYNew industry system INDUSTRY INDUSTRY DWELLINGS EXISTING DWELLINGS GREEN EXISTING INDUSTRY GREEN INDUSTRY DWELLINGS DWELLINGS INDUSTRY INDUSTRY INDUSTRY HOUSESINDUSTRY HOUSES INDUSTRY INDUSTRY DWELLINGS DWELLINGS EXISTING GREEN EXISTING GREEN INDUSTRY INDUSTRY DWELLINGS DWELLINGS INDUSTRY HOUSES INDUSTRY HOUSES A B A C B D C D O2 O2 WASTE WASTE A B A B E E CO2 COLD CO2 COLD HEAT HEAT CO2 CO2 F F A B A C B D C D C C D O2 D2 O G G WASTE WASTE A B A B E E CO2 COLD CO2 COLD EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM COTHE WALL - CO CLUSTERED SYSTEM 2 2 HEAT HEAT F F C C
  39. 39. design |THE WALL | generic becomes specific
  40. 40. design |THE WALL | forest wall
  41. 41. design |THE WALL | forest sand wall
  42. 42. design |THE WALL | river wall
  43. 43. design |THE WALL | water wall
  44. 44. design |THE WALL
  45. 45. Reflection|critique linear citySoria y Mata, Linear City, 1882
  46. 46. Reflection|critique linear cityMalcolmson, Metro-linearproject, 1957Miljutin, Tractorstoi, 1930
  47. 47. Reflection|critique linear city Le Corbusier, The Industrial Linear City 1932
  48. 48. Reflection|critique linear city Argumentation: - Limited extension of the city; - Efficiency in building; - A fordist mass production. - Best of both worlds (city and landscape); - Orientation on transport.
  49. 49. Reflection|critique linear city - Remains a scheme - Ignores existing context - Repetition and ratio - Birds eye perspective - Ignores everyday live
  50. 50. Haussmann and Le Corbusier in China 239 ordinary public space under pressure Reflection|superimposing le corbusierFigure 2. Plan for street widening overlaid on existing street network in Beijing’s West City District,
  51. 51. other Asian cities with large-scale land-assembly-dependent development, suchReflection|superimposing in Singapore, it is rather rare in China. Despiteas in Hong Kong’s new towns or le corbusierWilliam Whyte’s findings that buildings and open spaces that are adjacent tostreets but level-separated from them inhibit public access, the higher density Figure 6. Model showing the street facade of the Xin Fu San Cun project by Joe Carter. ¸
  52. 52. “Reflection|placelessness‘the capitalizedmodernization ofChina leads to adecline of ordinarypublic places, andto a feeling thatcities are becoming‘placeless’
  53. 53. Reflection|placelessness
  54. 54. Reflection| placelessness
  55. 55.  Reflection|placelessnessIgnoring existing topography, Shanghai, (Miao, 20  
  56. 56. Theory|ordinary public places ‘The new city, is based on a ‘disappearance of stable relations with a physical and cultural geography of a place’ Augé Sorkin Cacciari
  57. 57. Theory|ordinary public places “I argue that human beings originate in an alienated condition, and define themselves, through their social spatial environment. Therefore meaningful places are crucial for everyday life!” Heidegger
  58. 58. Theory|ordinary public places “Placelessness is the inevitable destiny of the urban condition. These generic cities are located in Asia. “ Koolhaas
  59. 59. Theory|ordinary public places how to design places meaningful for everyday life in a radically transforming, and generalizing Chinese city?
  60. 60. Theory|ordinary public places “The world is what we perceive. The way people use and value places is highly influenced by their perception of space.” Merleau-Ponty
  61. 61. Theory|ordinary public places Therefore the perceptual experience of space is crucial in the success of any urban design.
  62. 62. Perception of space|linearity china west small scattered central and static nodes places and streets yamen
  63. 63. Perception of space|hierarchy china west yamen church hierarchical system non-orthogonal system similarity in volumes individual volumes
  64. 64. Perception of space|unity church china west collective inward public outward focus on family focus on individual
  65. 65. Perception of space|human scale china west small scattered private spaces large pieces in the centre of blocks horizontal city vertical city
  66. 66. Perception of space|enclosurespace is perceived as aseries of walled enclosurespresenting space little bylittleform meaningful places byenclosing spaceslocal context determinesoutcome
  67. 67. Perception of space|enclosure
  68. 68. Perception of space|enclosure
  69. 69. Zoom in neighborhood|parameters
  70. 70. Zoom in neighborhood|valleytaking existing as a basis to develop
  71. 71. Zoom in neighborhood|valleytaking existing as a basis to develop
  72. 72. Zoom in neighborhood|bamboo hills and pondstaking existing as a basis to develop
  73. 73. Zoom in neighborhood|main arteries yamentaking existing as a basis to develop
  74. 74. Zoom in neighborhood|main arteriestaking existing as a basis to develop yamen 23 7 15 7 23 - symetrical profile - continuity facade - no setback - transparency 1st floor - max 5 stories - land use mix - max 12 m between each entrance - max 25% open space on plot
  75. 75. Zoom in neighborhood|secondary arteries yamentaking existing as a basis to develop
  76. 76. Zoom in neighborhood|secondary arteriestaking existing as a basis to develop yamen - transition zone 5 m ( porches, veranda’s, frontyard - 3-4 stories - asymetrical profile - height differences - max 7 m. between each entrance - sitting elements - land use mix - vendors and street stalls - planting as spacemakers
  77. 77. Zoom in neighborhood|building plots
  78. 78. Zoom in neighborhood|zoning
  79. 79. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  80. 80. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  81. 81. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  82. 82. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  83. 83. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development 1st floor min. 4 m. max. height 18.00 At least one side accessible to public One side at least a Wall max. 80% build min. 7 m.x 7m. court at least 5 m. distance on 50% max 23 m. max. 6 m.setback from street. 5m max. 5 plots per developer 6m
  84. 84. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  85. 85. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  86. 86. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  87. 87. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  88. 88. Zoom in neighborhood|plot development
  89. 89. Zoom in neighborhood|specials
  90. 90. Zoom in neighborhood|framework
  91. 91. Zoom in neighborhood|series of enclosed worlds
  92. 92. Zoom in neighborhood|series of enclosed worlds
  93. 93. Zoom in neighborhood|series of enclosed worlds
  94. 94. series of enclosed worlds | water
  95. 95. series of enclosed worlds |water Water Gravelbed Prefab concrete with constructed gutter CRUCIAL DETAIL Prefab concrete Coated steel gutter Helophytes Concrete Gravel
  96. 96. series of enclosed worlds |water- toned down materials- stones baked by local soil- only plantation, water andconcrete elements stand out- gravel in watercascade toincrease sound
  97. 97. series of enclosed worlds | water cleaning Storage + first filter Clean air Wall water transport system Black water Chinese citronella grass hylophytes and gravel Water tank Storage ponds Clarification plant Grey water Clean gutter Helophytes Primary sedimentation Planted trench filter Chengdu water system
  98. 98. result|CHINA 2030URBAN AREABy 2013 loss of arable land will go belowgovernments minumum of 120million ha 1990 2010 2030
  99. 99. result|CHINA 2030URBAN POPULATIONBy 2030 urban population will almost doublefrom 572 m in 2005 to one billion 1990 2010 2030
  100. 100. result|CHINA 2030MIGRANTS70% will be migrants 1990 2010 2030
  101. 101. result|CHINA 2030BIODIVERSITYBy 2030 7 to 20% of the landscape will be lost 1990 2010 2030
  102. 102. result|CHINA 2030WATERBy 2030 3 billion cubic meters of water is short 1990 2010 2030
  103. 103. result|CHINA 2030ENERGYBy 2030 energy demand will triple 1990 2010 2030
  104. 104. result|CHINA 2030AIR POLUTIONBy 2030 35 million cars will be sold annually 1990 2010 2030
  105. 105. result|CHINA 2030TRANSPORTBy 2030 the current subway system needto expand eight times 1990 2010 2030
  106. 106. result|CHINA 2030FOODBy 2030 meat consumption will double 1990 2010 2030
  107. 107. result|CHINA 2030WASTEBy 2030 solid waste will increase by 150% 1990 2010 2030
  108. 108. result|Technical urban the Wall rural
  109. 109. result|Psychological
  110. 110. result|INTEGRAL WALL
  111. 111. result|NEW CHINESE WALLS
  112. 112. the wall 墙城The re-discovery of ordinary public places in an alternative urban architec- tural model for Chinese cities – The case of Chengdu Jasper Nijveldt

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