Vascular plant organs


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Vascular plant organs

  1. 1. VASCULAR PLANT ORGANS JJA OBICO Instructor, Dept. of Biology CAS UP M ilCAS, UP Manila
  3. 3. Apical Meristemp • Shoot Apical Meristem Root Apical Meristem• Root Apical Meristem
  4. 4. Primary Growthy • Increase in length of roots and shoots Caused by APICAL MERISTEMS• Caused by APICAL MERISTEMS • Outcome: PRIMARY PLANT BODY APICAL MERISTEMS • Give rise to primary meristems• Give rise to primary meristems
  5. 5. Primary meristemsy • Produces tissues of the primary plant body Consists of:Consists of: 1. Protoderm Primary dermal tissue/ epidermisPrimary dermal tissue/ epidermis 2. Procambium Primary vascular tissuePrimary vascular tissue 3. Ground meristem Ground tissue
  6. 6. Primary meristems Primary tissuesPrimary meristems Primary tissues Protoderm Dermal Tissue (Epidermis) Apical Meristem Ground meristem Ground Tissue (parenchyma, ll hcollenchyma, sclerenchyma) Vascular Tissue Procambium Vascular Tissue (Primary Xylem and Phloem)
  7. 7. Lateral Meristems • aka secondary meristems Causes thickening of the stems and roots• Causes thickening of the stems and roots ▫ SECONDARY GROWTH Common in eudicots and gymnospermsCommon in eudicots and gymnosperms Rare in monocots • Single-cell layers of meristematic cells that usually form cylinders running lengthwise along t ta stem or root
  8. 8. L l iLateral meristem • Vascular cambium C k bi• Cork cambium
  9. 9. - Primary Growth
  10. 10. leafleaf bladeblade axillary budaxillary bud shoot apical meristemshoot apical meristem terminal budterminal bud Sh tSh t bladeblade petiolepetiole nodenode vascular tissuevascular tissue ShootShoot systemsystem vascular tissuevascular tissue internodeinternode vascular tissuevascular tissue root hairroot hair RootRoot systemsystem dermal tissuedermal tissue root tiproot tiproot caproot cap root apical meristemroot apical meristem dermal tissuedermal tissue ground tissueground tissue vascular tissuevascular tissue
  11. 11. ROOT • Anchors the plant • Absorbs water and• Absorbs water and minerals • Root hairs
  12. 12. Patterns of root growthg • Taproot system ▫ Most eudicots gymnosperms▫ Most eudicots, gymnosperms • Fibrous root systemFibrous root system ▫ Seedless vascular plants, monocots ▫ Adventitious roots ▫ More shallow and horizontal ▫ Common in dry regions
  13. 13. • Zone of cell division ▫ Root apical meristem and primary meristemsRoot apical meristem and primary meristems • Zone of elongation ▫ Derivatives stop dividing and begin to grow in length • Zone of maturation ▫ Cells begin specializing in structure and function▫ Cells begin specializing in structure and function into different cells types, epidermal cells and conducting cells R h i▫ Root hairs
  14. 14. External Structures • Root cap ▫ Protects the apical meristem▫ Protects the apical meristem ▫ Helps the root penetrate the soil ▫ Secretes mucigel- slimy polysaccharide forSecretes mucigel slimy polysaccharide for lubrication • Root hairs ▫ Zone of maturation ▫ Where most of absorption of water and mineral occurs
  15. 15. Tissues of the root • Epidermis Cortex• Cortex • Endodermis • Stele• Stele ▫ Pericycle ▫ Vascular TissuesVascular Tissues ▫ Pith*
  16. 16. uncutinized epidermis Root hair Lateral root phloemp o pericycle Endodermis - with Casparian strip pericycle xylem Cortex- parenchymap y
  17. 17. Casparian strip Composed of suberin-Composed of suberin
  18. 18. Thick cortex Exarch- protoxylem devpt. Tetrarch Protostele
  19. 19. • Aerial roots – epiphytes Buttress roots flared roots extending from tree• Buttress roots – flared roots extending from tree trunks • Contractile roots• Contractile roots • Suckers- asexual reproduction • PneumatophoresPneumatophores • Mycorrhiza- absorption of P ▫ Endomycorrhizay ▫ Ectomycorrhiza
  20. 20. axilTerminal bud STEM node Axillary bud • Supports leaves or reproductive structures internode reproductive structures • Conduct water, minerals and organic molecules
  21. 21. Protoderm Ground meristem Procambium
  22. 22. Meristematic regionMeristematic region Enlargement regionEnlargement region ProtodermProtoderm epidermisepidermis cortexcortex Ground meristemGround meristem cortexcortex pithpith ProcambiumProcambium phloemphloem vascular cambiumvascular cambium ProcambiumProcambium xylemxylem
  23. 23. Tissues of the stem • Epidermis ▫ Cuticle▫ Cuticle ▫ Trichomes • CortexCortex • Vascular Tissues • Pith*Pith
  24. 24. epidermisepidermis cortexcortex pith raypith ray pithpith primary phloemprimary phloem fascicularfascicular cambiumcambium i li lprimary xylemprimary xylem Vascular bundleVascular bundle SIPHONOSTELE
  25. 25. M t d E di t tMonocot and Eudicot stem
  26. 26. bundle sheathbundle sheath phloemphloem companion cellcompanion cell sieve tubesieve tube pitted vesselpitted vessel Cross section of a monocot stCross section of a monocot st xylemxylem pitted vesselpitted vessel annular vesselannular vessel air spaceair space vascular bundlvascular bundl
  27. 27. epidermis tcortex vascular bundle pith
  28. 28. Young herbaceous dicot stemYoung herbaceous dicot stemYoung herbaceous dicot stemYoung herbaceous dicot stem d hd hd hd hendarchendarchendarchendarch
  29. 29. Vascular bundle of a dicot stemVascular bundle of a dicot stem phloemphloemphloemphloem Vascular bundle of a dicot stemVascular bundle of a dicot stem vascular cambiumvascular cambium phloemphloemphloemphloem interfascicular cambiuminterfascicular cambiuminterfascicular cambiuminterfascicular cambium fascicular cambiumfascicular cambium xylemxylem
  30. 30. Comparison between ROOT and Stem ROOT STEM • Protostele • Siphonostele• Protostele • Wider cortex • Uncutinized epidermis Lack nodes • Siphonostele • Thinner Cortex • Cutinized epidermis With nodes• Lack nodes • With nodes
  31. 31. cladode ModifiedModifiedModifiedModified stemsstems
  32. 32. Modified stems: vegetative reproductionModified stems: vegetative reproduction stoloniferousstoloniferous rhizomatousrhizomatous
  33. 33. CormsBulbs Tubers
  34. 34. Rhizomes Stolon/Runners
  35. 35. LEAF • Main photosynthetic organ of the plantorgan of the plant • Flat • Transpiration
  36. 36. Leaf buttress
  37. 37. reticulate venation V PV PVenation PatternsVenation Patterns parallel venation
  38. 38. Phyllotaxy Leaf shapeLeaf shape andandandand arrangementsarrangements havehave Leaf Type havehave environmentalenvironmental significancesignificancesignificancesignificance
  39. 39. Tissues of the leafTissues of the leaf • Epidermis ▫ Two surfacesTwo surfaces Upper- Adaxial Lower- Abaxial ▫ With cuticleW t cut c e ▫ Stomata ▫ Trichomes • Mesophyll ▫ Ground tissue PalisadePalisade Spongy ▫ Vascular Tissue Vein
  40. 40. epidermis In most plants the epidermis is single layered.In most plants the epidermis is single layered. epidermisepidermis Others, as in rubber tree plant, have multiple layersOthers, as in rubber tree plant, have multiple layers allowing them to occupy varied selective habitatsallowing them to occupy varied selective habitats
  41. 41. subsidiary cellssubsidiary cells grass-type stoma dumbell shape guardguard cellscells K+K+K+K+KK++ K+K+ HH22OOHH22OOHH22OO HH22OO
  42. 42. CC ti th h th idti th h th idCrossCross--section through the midsection through the mid
  43. 43. upper epidermisupper epidermis xylemxylem collenchymacollenchyma phloemphloem lower epidermislower epidermis phloemphloem hh collenchymacollenchyma parenchymaparenchyma
  44. 44. Cross section of a leafCross section of a leaf cutting through a veincutting through a vein cuticle stoma adaxial epidermis palisade mesophyllp p y spongy mesophyll vein p gy p y abaxial epidermis air spaces abaxial epidermis stoma
  45. 45. LLLeaf modificationLeaf modificationinsectivorous plainsectivorous pla
  46. 46. Venus flytrapVenus flytrap
  47. 47. Nepenthes sp.Nepenthes sp. SarraceniaSarracenia sp.sp.
  48. 48. BRACTBRACT Succulent
  49. 49. Leaves as homesLeaves as homes for antsfor ants leaf tendril forleaf tendril for supportsupport leaf tendril for climbing leaf tipsleaf tips for protectionfor protectionf pf p
  50. 50. The largest leaf is observed in the genus VictoriaVictoriain the genus VictoriaVictoria