describes the whole process of research to be
a written plan of study
It is a straight-forward document
It is NOT a literary production
It is clearly organized
Purpose or hypothesis and specific objectives
Discussion of significance of need (justification)
Review of work done or being done (literature)
Materials and Methods
Discussion of possible outcomes (conclusions)
Time frame, budget, and biography of
SPECIFIC and as brief as is possible consistent
with giving information
As a general rule should not exceed 15 words
contain the subject matter of the study, the
locale of the study, the population involved,
and the period when the data were gathered
or will be gathered.
Comment on this
TheAmazing Production of Polyclonal and
solanaceum, E.F. Smith for Diagnosis of
BacterialWilt in Banana.
The Introduction should contain the following
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitations
Definition of KeyTerms (if applicable)
the proponent cite the background of the study
by quoting some statements from published
materials relevant to the proposed study to give
the reader a bird’s eye view of the study.
the proponent can also state the rationale of the
study or justification for doing the study but not
so extensive since there is another segment
where the proponent can explain this called
“Significance of the Study”.
A general statement of the whole problem
followed by specific questions or
subproblems into which the general problem
is broken up.
statement of purpose for which the
investigation is to be conducted. It differs
from a research problem by being stated in a
only EXPERIMENTAL studies need expressly-
Rationale, timeliness, and/or relevance of the
possible solutions to existing problems or
improvement of unsatisfactory conditions.
Who are to be benefited and how?
Possible contribution to the fund of
a brief statement of the general purpose of the
the subject matter and topics studied and
the locale of the study, where the data were
gathered or to be gathered
the population or universe from which the
respondents were selected
the period of the study.
only the terms, words, or phrases which have
special or unique meanings in the study are
terms should be defined operationally, i.e.
how they are used in the study
definitions should be as brief, clear, and
unequivocal as possible.
a summary of the writings of recognized
authorities and of previous research provides
evidence that the researcher is familiar with
what is already known and what is still
unknown and untested
this section tells the reader exactly how the
study will be conducted and to ensure that a
competent worker could repeat your
experiment and compare his/her results with
this section must directly satisfy the criterion
who will be the research participants (or what
population of plants or animals), how many
of them, their characteristics (number,
species, strain number, sex, age, weight,
etc.), and how will they be selected.
Any mention of commercially marketed
equipment should be accompanied by the
firm’s name and the model number, or in the
case of a measuring instrument, a reference
that will enable the reader to obtain the same
A 2 x 6 factorial experiment will be conducted using lambs
fed ad libitum in individual pens indoors.This will comprise
two basal diets (kale and Lucerne) and five levels of SMCO
supplementation (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 D.M.). As
SMCO supplementation depressed voluntary intake, the
sixth supplementary treatment will be comprised of
animals offered control kale and Lucerne diets (i.e.
without any SMCO added) but with intake restricted to the
same level as to be achieved by the groups supplemented
with 1.6% SMCO.There were four replicate animals in
each of the 12 treatment groups, giving 48 animals in the
Source: Mountier NS, Lucas RJ (1981)
details about levels of statistical significance
applied in hypothesis testing, or any special
statistical tests or analyses done.This
depends on the objectives as well as the
chosen research design.
This section should show the skeleton or
dummy tables or data sheets.
Provides clues as to how the data will be best
presented, whether in tables or figures.
accurate preliminary list of the articles cited
in your review of related literature.
Additional literature may be added later.
Follow a consistent style throughout
Any error can destroy your credibility and
diminish the chance for acceptance of your
allow yourself enough time but don’t be
know exactly how much time is given to you
by the grantor or adviser