Flowering plants bio20.ppt

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Flowering plants bio20.ppt

  1. 1. 10/14/13 1. What is another name for the flowering plants? 1
  2. 2. 10/14/13 3. What is the definition of a flower? 2
  3. 3. 10/14/13 Whorled: dichlamydeous Whorled: homochlamydeous Spiral Sepal or outer tepal stamen stamen Petal or inner tepal stamen sepal petal 3
  4. 4. 10/14/13 Initiation/ development Innervated by veins }  Dorsiventral shape }  stamen }  carpel Arabidopsis thaliana Genes produce transcription factors at 4 locations àinduce expression of genes that induce organ formation 4
  5. 5. 10/14/13 Modified microsporophylls Consists of filament and anther }  Anther - a type of synangium }  }  5
  6. 6. 10/14/13 2 thecae At maturity Nymphaea ordorata - laminar stamens 2 thecae line of dehiscence 2 thecae 11. Describe the structure and function of a mature male gametophyte in the flowering plants. filamentous stamens 6
  7. 7. 10/14/13 tube cell tube nucleus mitosis 2 sperm cells tube nucleus generative cell pollen grain (immature male gametophyte) 2 sperm cells pollen tube 12. What is the definition of a carpel? 13. What is the difference between carpel, pistil, and gynoecium? mature male gametophyte 7
  8. 8. 10/14/13 }  Ea Early development of carpels Intermediate stage Mature stage of carpels 8
  9. 9. 10/14/13 }  1) Site for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. ◦  Greater selective control as to which pollen can fertilize the ovules. }  2) Fruit formation. ◦  Dispersal of seeds (via fruit) by: –  –  –  –  wind water animals mechanical means 9
  10. 10. 10/14/13 10
  11. 11. 10/14/13 }  ◦  }  ◦  No time lag between pollination and fertilization Seeds may be generated rapidly, enabling the evolution of annual herbs, a new plant habit. Conservation of resources Nutritive cells (endosperm) not formed until after fertilization in angiosperms 11
  12. 12. 10/14/13 Specialized end walls 12
  13. 13. 10/14/13 }  }  Synangia Radially symmetrical "The rapid development as far as we can judge of all the higher plants within recent geological times is an abominable mystery." —Charles Darwin in a letter to Sir Joseph Hooker, 1879. carpels stamens Pollination droplet not Stigmatic region 13
  14. 14. 10/14/13 How do we know angiosperm relationships? Cladistic analyses: parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian Use of all types of data: morphological, anatomical, embryological, palynological, karyological, chemical, and molecular data Most useful: multiple gene sequence data Use of orders (end in “-ales”) to classify one or more families }  Orders are not indicative of a hierarchical classification system }  Orders are well-supported based on measures of clade robustness (bootstrap, jackknife) }  Some orders further grouped into higher taxa (e.g., monocots, Asterids, etc.) }  14
  15. 15. 10/14/13 ANGIOSPERMS: Major Groups AMBORELLALES* Amborellaceae NYMPHAEALES* Nymphaeaceae* Cabombaceae* AUSTROBAILEYALES Austrobaileyaceae Illiciaceae* Schisandraceae Trimeniaceae Chloranthaceae MAGNOLIIDS LAURALES Atherospermataceae Calycanthaceae Gomortegaceae Hernandiaceae Lauraceae Monimiaceae Siparunaceae MAGNOLIALES Annonaceae Degeneriaceae Eupomatiaceae Himantandraceae Magnoliaceae Myristicaceae MAGNOLIIDS (continued) CANELLALES Canellaceae Winteraceae PIPERALES Aristolochiaceae Hydnoraceae Lactoridaceae Piperaceae Saururaceae MONOCOTS Ceratophyllales Ceratophyllaceae EUDICOTS Measures number of parts (merosity & cycly): K = calyx C = corolla P = perianth A = androecium G = gynoecium ( ) = fusion of like parts [ ] = less common E.g., }  K (5) [(4)] C 5 [4] A 5+5 [4+4] G 5 [4], superior }  P (3+3) A 3+3 G (3), inferior }  Monotypic (1 family, 1 species) Amborellaceae Amborella trichopoda Native to New Caledonia 15
  16. 16. 10/14/13 Amborella trichopoda }  The Amborellaceae are distinctive in being vesselless, evergreen shrubs with unisexual flowers having an undifferentiated, spiral perianth, numerous, laminar stamens, and an apocarpous gynoecium, with 1-ovuled carpels. }  Male flowers: P 5-8 A ∞ Female flowers: P 5-8 G 5-6, superior }  Amborella trichopoda vessel-less (no vessels, only tracheids) woody shrub with simple, glabrous, evergreen leaves }  flowers unisexual }  perianth undifferentiated }  stamens numerous, laminar }  gynoecium apocarpous }  fruit an aggregate of drupes }  seeds endospermous }  }  Photo by Tim Stevens U. C. S. C. Photo by Missouri Botanical Garden Flowers unisexual: male (left) female (above) 16
  17. 17. 10/14/13 }  }  The Nymphaeaceae are distinguished from related families in consisting of aquatic herbs with floating leaves and solitary, floating to aerial flowers with mostly spiral floral parts and petals grading into usually laminar stamens. }  Two families: Cabombaceae & Nymphaeaceae K 4-6 [-14] C 8-∞ [0] A ∞ G (3-∞), superior or inferior. Nuphar luteum Spadderdock 17
  18. 18. 10/14/13 Nymphaea sp. Nymphaea sp. Victoria reginae 18
  19. 19. 10/14/13 Annonaceae Degeneriaceae Eupomatiaceae Himantandraceae Magnoliaceae Myristicaceae Arboreal, shrubby or viny }  Aromatic wood and foliage }  Leaves drooping }  Exstipulate }  Flowers bisexual Actinomorphic }  Perianth triseriate }  Hypogynous }  Stamens spiral }  3-merous }  Connectives enlarged }  Ca3Co6A∞G∞ }  }  19
  20. 20. 10/14/13 Gynoecium uniloculate Usually apocarpous }  Uniovulate }  Basal }  Fruit berry, fleshy aggregate }  Endosperm ruminate Annona squamosa Cananga odorata }  Polyalthia longifolia }  Annona muricata }  Dasymaschalon }  }  }  }  Magnolia grandiflora The Magnoliaceae are distinguished from related families in consisting of trees and shrubs with solitary flowers, a usually undifferentiated petaloid perianth with numerous tepals, and numerous stamens and pistils born on elongate receptacular axis; the fruit is an aggregate of follicles, berries, or samaras. P ∞ A ∞ G ∞ [2-∞], superior. 20
  21. 21. 10/14/13 Magnolia grandiflora Michelia doltsopa Magnolia grandiflora Michelia doltsopa 21
  22. 22. 10/14/13 Atherospermataceae Calycanthaceae Gomortegaceae Hernandiaceae Lauraceae Monimiaceae Siparunaceae The Lauraceae are distinguished from related families in consisting of perennial trees or shrubs (rarely vines) with an undifferentiated perianth, valvular anther dehiscence, and one ovule per carpel with apical placentation, seeds lacking endosperm. P 3+3 [6, 2+2, or 3+3+3] A 3-12+ G 1 [-(3)], superior, rarely inferior, hypanthium present Laurus nobilis Laurel Lauraceae 22
  23. 23. 10/14/13 valvular anther dehiscence Laurus nobilis }  Laurel Persea americana Lauraceae Avocado }  Persea americana }  Cinnamomum camphora Camphor Lauraceae Avocado Lauraceae Lauraceae 23
  24. 24. 10/14/13 Aristolochiaceae Hydnoraceae* Lactoridaceae Piperaceae Saururaceae The Piperaceae are distinctive in having a spadix with numerous, very small, unisexual or bisexual flowers lacking a perianth. Economic importance includes Piper nigrum, the source of black and white pepper; other species are used for flavoring, medicinal plants, euphoric plants (e.g., Piper methysticum, kava), and cultivated ornamentals, e.g., Peperomia spp. P 0 A 3+3 (1-10) G 1 or (G) 3,4, superior. Piper [Macropiper] excelsum Piperaceae 24
  25. 25. 10/14/13 Piper [Macropiper] excelsum Piperaceae Peperomia sp. Piperaceae 25

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