9/24/13
1
REVIEW
1 2 3 4 5
A 1 1 1 1 1
B 1 0 0 0 0
C 0 0 1 1 1
Outgroup 0 0 0 0 0
EVOLUTION OF PLANTS
OBICO JJA, Instructo...
9/24/13
2
9/24/13
3
Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae -
Alismatales)
cell wall
chloroplasts
thylakoids
stroma
granum
chloroplast:
chlorophyll...
9/24/13
4
HAPLOID (n)
MulticelledStage
(Adult)
Egg
(n)
Sperm
(n)
Zygote
(2n)
Spores
(n)
mitosis
fertilization
HAPLONTIC
Oo...
9/24/13
5
Charales - oogamy
Nitella Chara
oogonium
Coleochaete
9/24/13
6
cell wall:
cellulosic
plasmodesmata (in some Green Plants)
cellulosic cell wall
plasmodesmata
middle lamella
CEL...
9/24/13
7
Two possible hypotheses:
9/24/13
8
GAMETOPHYTE
(n)
Egg
(n)
Sperm
(n)
Zygote
(2n)
HAPLODIPLONTIC
("Alternation of
Generations")
SPOROPHYTE
(2n)
Embr...
9/24/13
9
9/24/13
10
9/24/13
11
Marchantia (liverwort) Mnium (moss)
antheridiu
m
antheridiu
m
sperm cells
9/24/13
12
Marchantia (liverwort)
archegonium
egg cell
neck
“Bryophytes” paraphyletic
9/24/13
13
“Bryophytes”
Liverworts
Hornworts
Mosses
9/24/13
14
Liverworts -
Hepaticae
Two basic forms:
-thalloid
-leafy
Asterella sp. 1
9/24/13
15
Asterella sp. 2
Bazannia
a leafy liverwort
9/24/13
16
Conocephalum sp.
Fossombronia sp.
9/24/13
17
Marchantia
pore
gemma cup
pore
gemmae
Marchantia
sporophyte spores
elaters
9/24/13
18
stomate
9/24/13
19
Hornworts
(Anthocerotae)
9/24/13
20
Hornworts
9/24/13
21
Mosses
(Musci)
9/24/13
22
calyptra
operculum
peristome
tooth
mature capsule
(sporangium)
spores
gametophyte
(n)
sporophyte
(2n)
antheridi...
9/24/13
23
calyptra
operculum
peristome
tooth
mature capsule
(sporangium)
spores
gametophyte
(n)
sporophyte
(2n)
antheridi...
9/24/13
24
spore
(n) protonema
spore
(n)
9/24/13
25
spore
(n) protonema
spore
(n) protonema gametophyte (n)
9/24/13
26
spore
(n) protonema gametophyte (n)
archegonium antheridium
fertilization
spore
(n) protonema gametophyte (n)
a...
9/24/13
27
fertilization
meiosis
spore
(n) protonema gametophyte (n)
archegonium antheridiumsporophyte (2n)
9/24/13
28
Sphagnum Peat Moss
Sphagnum Peat Moss
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Evolution of plants and non vascular

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Evolution of plants and non vascular

  1. 1. 9/24/13 1 REVIEW 1 2 3 4 5 A 1 1 1 1 1 B 1 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 1 1 1 Outgroup 0 0 0 0 0 EVOLUTION OF PLANTS OBICO JJA, Instructor Department of Biology
  2. 2. 9/24/13 2
  3. 3. 9/24/13 3 Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae - Alismatales) cell wall chloroplasts thylakoids stroma granum chloroplast: chlorophyll a & b grana starch amyloplasts (starch grains): alpha-1,4-glucopyranoside
  4. 4. 9/24/13 4 HAPLOID (n) MulticelledStage (Adult) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) Spores (n) mitosis fertilization HAPLONTIC Oogamy meiosis HAPLOID (n) MulticelledStage (Adult) Gamete (n) Zygote (2n) Spores (n) mitosis fertilization HAPLONTIC Isogamy meiosis Gamete (n) A B
  5. 5. 9/24/13 5 Charales - oogamy Nitella Chara oogonium Coleochaete
  6. 6. 9/24/13 6 cell wall: cellulosic plasmodesmata (in some Green Plants) cellulosic cell wall plasmodesmata middle lamella CELL#1 CELL#2 plasma membrane The Land Plants =Embryophyta (embryophytes) }  The first colonization of plants on land during the Silurian period, ca. 400 million years ago. }  Land Plants now dominate the earth.
  7. 7. 9/24/13 7 Two possible hypotheses:
  8. 8. 9/24/13 8 GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce
  9. 9. 9/24/13 9
  10. 10. 9/24/13 10
  11. 11. 9/24/13 11 Marchantia (liverwort) Mnium (moss) antheridiu m antheridiu m sperm cells
  12. 12. 9/24/13 12 Marchantia (liverwort) archegonium egg cell neck “Bryophytes” paraphyletic
  13. 13. 9/24/13 13 “Bryophytes” Liverworts Hornworts Mosses
  14. 14. 9/24/13 14 Liverworts - Hepaticae Two basic forms: -thalloid -leafy Asterella sp. 1
  15. 15. 9/24/13 15 Asterella sp. 2 Bazannia a leafy liverwort
  16. 16. 9/24/13 16 Conocephalum sp. Fossombronia sp.
  17. 17. 9/24/13 17 Marchantia pore gemma cup pore gemmae Marchantia sporophyte spores elaters
  18. 18. 9/24/13 18 stomate
  19. 19. 9/24/13 19 Hornworts (Anthocerotae)
  20. 20. 9/24/13 20 Hornworts
  21. 21. 9/24/13 21 Mosses (Musci)
  22. 22. 9/24/13 22 calyptra operculum peristome tooth mature capsule (sporangium) spores gametophyte (n) sporophyte (2n) antheridia archegonia costa germinating spore protonema embryo (2n) operculum peristome teeth archegonial neck GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce
  23. 23. 9/24/13 23 calyptra operculum peristome tooth mature capsule (sporangium) spores gametophyte (n) sporophyte (2n) antheridia archegonia costa germinating spore protonema embryo (2n) operculum peristome teeth archegonial neck calyptra operculum peristome tooth mature capsule (sporangium) spores sporophyte (2n) antheridia archegonia costa germinating spore protonema embryo (2n) operculum peristome teeth archegonial neck
  24. 24. 9/24/13 24 spore (n) protonema spore (n)
  25. 25. 9/24/13 25 spore (n) protonema spore (n) protonema gametophyte (n)
  26. 26. 9/24/13 26 spore (n) protonema gametophyte (n) archegonium antheridium fertilization spore (n) protonema gametophyte (n) archegonium antheridiumsporophyte (2n)
  27. 27. 9/24/13 27 fertilization meiosis spore (n) protonema gametophyte (n) archegonium antheridiumsporophyte (2n)
  28. 28. 9/24/13 28 Sphagnum Peat Moss Sphagnum Peat Moss

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