Peachie Laing Uri Butler George Robinson Jasper Haeward 19th Century Radio
Radio in the Nineteenth Century <ul><li>The nineteenth century marked the launching point, or the foundation of radio comm...
1820-1840 <ul><li>1820: Hans Christian Ørsted revealed the relationship between electricity and magnetism in a very simple...
Michael Faraday Hans Christian Ørsted
1850-1875 <ul><li>1860s: James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves He proved it with math, and published ...
<ul><li>July 30, 1872: Mahlon Loomis was issued a US patent for “Improved Telegraphing”. </li></ul><ul><li>1873: Maxwell, ...
James Clerk Maxwell Mahlon Loomis
Before radio, the main means of communication were either telegraph or messenger. A Camelback Morse Key (1860)
Edison’s Automatic Telegraph (1872) one of the inventions that sparked the creation of wireless radio.
1875-1890 <ul><li>1877: Thomas Edison patents his talking machine.  </li></ul><ul><li>1878: David E. Hughes was the first ...
Edison’s Talking Machine (1877)
1875-1890 (cont.) <ul><li>1884 to 1886: Edouard Branly of France produced an improved version of the coherer.  </li></ul><...
Edouard Branly A Coherer
1890-1895 <ul><li>1893: In Missouri, Nikola Tesla gave a public demonstration of &quot;wireless&quot; radio communication....
An early vacuum tube Nikola Tesla
1895-1905 (cont.) <ul><li>1895: Guglielmo Marconi—known as the father of sound— sent and received his first radio signal i...
Gugliemo Marconi Marconi and associates raising the receiving antenna by kite at St. John's, Newfoundland in December, 190...
Bahamian Radio  in the  Past 50 Years Peachie Laing Uri Butler George Robinson Jasper Haeward
Bahamian Radio  <ul><li>Radio was the first electronic mass medium </li></ul><ul><li>It was the first broadcast medium </l...
Bahamian Radio 2 <ul><li>Number of stations –  17 </li></ul><ul><li>Penetration - 100% of population </li></ul><ul><li>Com...
Bahamian Radio 3 <ul><li>Over the years, some of the regulations and practices of radio that were used by American radio s...
Bahamian Radio 4 <ul><li>Some of the new technologies afforded to Americans are currently available in the Bahamas. </li><...
Bahamian Radio 5 <ul><li>MP3  – file compression software that permits streaming of digital audio and video data </li></ul...
Bahamian Radio 6 <ul><li>As a result of the adoption of these regulations and practices, along with new technological adva...
Bahamian Radio 7 <ul><li>Some regulations which were not adopted by Bahamian radio are greatly needed in our society today...
Works Cited <ul><li>http:// inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm   </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.or...
Other Images Cited <ul><li>http://www.antiquehelper.com/auctionimages/26032t.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://history.sandiego...
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19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas

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19th Century Radio & Radio in the Bahamas

  1. 1. Peachie Laing Uri Butler George Robinson Jasper Haeward 19th Century Radio
  2. 2. Radio in the Nineteenth Century <ul><li>The nineteenth century marked the launching point, or the foundation of radio communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Without these inventions and discoveries that occurred during this age, the creation of radio would have been impossible or, at least, stagnated for a few more centuries. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1820-1840 <ul><li>1820: Hans Christian Ørsted revealed the relationship between electricity and magnetism in a very simple experiment. He demonstrated that a wire carrying a current was able to deflect a magnetized compass needle. </li></ul><ul><li>1831: Michael Faraday began a series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction. Faraday suggested that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete that work. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Michael Faraday Hans Christian Ørsted
  5. 5. 1850-1875 <ul><li>1860s: James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves He proved it with math, and published his findings in many papers. Much of this work was performed during his time at Kings College in London. His work was summarized in a book entitled &quot;Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>1866: Mahlon Loomis successfully demonstrated &quot;wireless telegraphy&quot;. He was able to make a meter that was connected to one kite cause another to move, marking the first known instance of wireless, aerial communication. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>July 30, 1872: Mahlon Loomis was issued a US patent for “Improved Telegraphing”. </li></ul><ul><li>1873: Maxwell, as a result of experiments, first described the theoretical basis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in his paper, A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field . </li></ul>1850-1875 (cont.)
  7. 7. James Clerk Maxwell Mahlon Loomis
  8. 8. Before radio, the main means of communication were either telegraph or messenger. A Camelback Morse Key (1860)
  9. 9. Edison’s Automatic Telegraph (1872) one of the inventions that sparked the creation of wireless radio.
  10. 10. 1875-1890 <ul><li>1877: Thomas Edison patents his talking machine. </li></ul><ul><li>1878: David E. Hughes was the first to transmit and receive radio waves when he noticed that his induction balance caused noise in the receiver of his homemade telephone. </li></ul><ul><li>1880: David Hughes demonstrated his discovery to the Royal Society, but was told it was merely induction—the production of voltage across a conductor within a moving or static magnetic field. </li></ul><ul><li>1884: Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti in Italy invented a tube filled with iron filings, called a &quot;coherer&quot;--a primitive form of radio signal detector. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Edison’s Talking Machine (1877)
  12. 12. 1875-1890 (cont.) <ul><li>1884 to 1886: Edouard Branly of France produced an improved version of the coherer. </li></ul><ul><li>1885: Thomas Edison took out a patent on a system of radio communication between ships, which he then sold to Guglielmo Marconi. </li></ul><ul><li>1886: Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. </li></ul><ul><li>1887: Emile Berliner, German, develops the gramophone and sophisticated microphone (his company is RCA Victor Records) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Edouard Branly A Coherer
  14. 14. 1890-1895 <ul><li>1893: In Missouri, Nikola Tesla gave a public demonstration of &quot;wireless&quot; radio communication. He addressed the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, describing in detail the principles of radio communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The apparatus that he used contained all the elements that were incorporated into radio systems before the development of the &quot;oscillation valve&quot;; the early vacuum tube—a device used to control electrical current thru manipulation of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards, the principle of sending signals through space to receivers—radio communication— was publicized widely. Various scientists, inventors, and experimenters begin to investigate wireless methods. </li></ul>
  15. 15. An early vacuum tube Nikola Tesla
  16. 16. 1895-1905 (cont.) <ul><li>1895: Guglielmo Marconi—known as the father of sound— sent and received his first radio signal in Italy. He proved the plausibility of radio communication. </li></ul><ul><li>1899: Marconi flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received his first message. </li></ul><ul><li>1902: Marconi received the letter &quot;S&quot;, telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gugliemo Marconi Marconi and associates raising the receiving antenna by kite at St. John's, Newfoundland in December, 1901 The “father of sound”
  18. 18. Bahamian Radio in the Past 50 Years Peachie Laing Uri Butler George Robinson Jasper Haeward
  19. 19. Bahamian Radio <ul><li>Radio was the first electronic mass medium </li></ul><ul><li>It was the first broadcast medium </li></ul><ul><li>It was the young people’s media </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is personal </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is mobile </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bahamian Radio 2 <ul><li>Number of stations – 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Penetration - 100% of population </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial time per hour - average 6-12 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Audience peaks - morning/afternoon drive time, midday talk shows. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bahamian Radio 3 <ul><li>Over the years, some of the regulations and practices of radio that were used by American radio stations were adopted by Bahamian radio stations. </li></ul><ul><li>billings – dollars earned from the sale of airtime </li></ul><ul><li>deregulation – relaxation of ownership and other rules for radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>duopoly – one person or company owning and managing multiple radio stations in a single market </li></ul><ul><li>LPFM – low power FM – 10- to 100- watt nonprofit community radio stations with a reach of only a few miles </li></ul><ul><li>cover – recording of one artist’s music by another artist </li></ul><ul><li>Syndication – sale of radio or television content to stations on a market-by- market basis </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bahamian Radio 4 <ul><li>Some of the new technologies afforded to Americans are currently available in the Bahamas. </li></ul><ul><li>DMX – digital music express – home delivery of audio by cable </li></ul><ul><li>DARS – digital audio radio service – direct home or automobile delivery of audio by satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming – the simultaneous downloading and accessing (playing) of digital audio or video data </li></ul><ul><li>Digital recording – the recording of sound based on conversion of sound into binary code logged into millisecond intervals in a computerized translation process </li></ul><ul><li>Web radio – the delivery of radio over the Internet directly to individual listeners </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting – recording and downloading of audio files stored on servers </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bahamian Radio 5 <ul><li>MP3 – file compression software that permits streaming of digital audio and video data </li></ul><ul><li>Modem – a device that translates digital computer information into an analog form so it can be transmitted through telephone lines </li></ul><ul><li>Open source software – freely downloaded software </li></ul><ul><li>P2P – peer-to-peer software that permits direct Internet-based communication or collaboration between two or more personal computers while bypassing centralized servers </li></ul><ul><li>BitTorrent – file-sharing software that allows users to create “swarms” of data as they simultaneously download and upload bits of a file </li></ul>
  24. 24. Bahamian Radio 6 <ul><li>As a result of the adoption of these regulations and practices, along with new technological advancements, the problems associated with them also arose. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance of profit over artistry </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural homogenization; lack of individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Infringement upon artistic freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion overshadows the music </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy- illegal downloading of files </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bahamian Radio 7 <ul><li>Some regulations which were not adopted by Bahamian radio are greatly needed in our society today, to preserve individuality and wholesomeness of radio culture. </li></ul><ul><li>trustee model – in broadcast regulation, the idea that broadcasters serve as the public’s trustees or fiduciaries </li></ul><ul><li>spectrum scarcity - broadcast spectrum space is limited, so not everyone who wants to broadcast can; those who are granted licenses must accept regulation. It also ensures power. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Works Cited <ul><li>http:// inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/radio.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_radio#Radio.27s_prehistory_.2819th_century.29 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.google.com/patents?id=ayxCAAAAEBAJ&printsec=abstract&zoom=4&source=gbs_overview_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/radio_history/radiohist/radio_history.php#top </li></ul><ul><li>All pictures from Wikipedia, unless listed on the next page. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Other Images Cited <ul><li>http://www.antiquehelper.com/auctionimages/26032t.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/recording/images4/12040201va.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hamradio.co.uk/acatalog/Camelback300.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.earlyofficemuseum.com/IMagesWWW/1872_Edison_Automatic_Telegraph_displayed_at_Centennial_Exhibition.jpg </li></ul>

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