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WH Ch 4-2


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WH Unit 1 Ch 4-2

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WH Ch 4-2

  1. 1. World History Chapter 4-2 Mr. Owens Winter 2009
  2. 2. The Polis: Center of Greek Life  The polis (city-state) became the central focus of Greek life.  It was a town serving as a center where people met for political, economic, and religious activities.
  3. 3. The Polis: Center of Greek Life  The main gathering place was on a hill, topped with a fortified area called acropolis.  Below was the agora, an open area for people to assemble and for a market.
  4. 4. The Polis: Center of Greek Life  City-states varied in size. Athens’ population exceeded 300 thousand by the fifth century BC.  There were three classes: Citizens with political rights (adult males), citizen without political rights (women and children) and non-citizens (slaves and resident aliens)
  5. 5. The Polis : Center of Greek Life  Responsibilities accompanied rights.  Loyalty, however, made the city-states fiercely patriotic and distrustful of one another.  The city-states’ independence and warring helped bring Greece to ruin.
  6. 6. The Polis: Center of Greek Life  Hoplites were infantry who carried a shield, sword, and spear.  They fought shoulder to shoulder in a formation called a phalanx.  This close formation made the hoplites a powerful force.
  7. 7. Greek Colonies  many Greeks settled distant lands.  The growth of trade and wanting good farmland were two motives.  Colonies were founded in Italy, France, Spain, and northern Africa. Greek culture was spread.
  8. 8. Greek Colonies  Increased trade and industry in such created a new wealthy class of merchants who wanted political power.  They found it hard to get because of the ruling aristocrats.
  9. 9. Tyranny in the City-States  The creation of this new wealthy class led to the rise of tyrants in the Greek citystates.  tyrant simply referred to a leader who seized power by force from ruling aristocrats.  Because the aristocrats oppressed them, the peasants supported the tyrants.
  10. 10. Tyranny in the City-States  Tyrants seized and kept power by using hired soldiers.  By the end of the sixth century BC, however, tyrants had fallen out of favor.
  11. 11. Tyranny in the City-States  The end of tyranny allowed new classes to participate in government.  Some city-states became democracies, ruled by the many. (Athens)  Others became oligarchies, ruled by the few. (Sparta)
  12. 12. Sparta  Like many Greek city-states, Sparta needed more land.  It gained land through conquest Conquered people became serfs who worked for the Spartans.  They were called helots, from the Greek for “capture.”
  13. 13. Sparta  Sparta created a military state.  Boys learned military discipline, entered the military at 20, and lived in the barracks until 30.  They ate all meals in public dining halls.  They ate a foul broth of pork boiled in animal blood, vinegar, and salt.
  14. 14. Sparta  Spartans could marry at 20 and vote in the assembly at 30.  They stayed in the army until 60.  Spartan women lived at home while their husbands lived in the barracks.  Thus, they had more freedom of movement and greater power than women in other Greek CityStates.  They were expected to remain fit to bear and raise healthy children.  They expected their husbands and sons to be brave in battle. To win or be killed.
  15. 15. Sparta  Two kings who led the Spartan army headed the Spartan oligarchy.  A council of two kings and 28 men over 60 years of age decided on the issues the assembly would vote on.  They assembly did not debate, but only voted.
  16. 16. Sparta  Sparta closed itself off from the outside world.  Spartans frowned upon new ideas and the arts.  Only the art of war mattered.
  17. 17. Athens  A king ruled early Athens.  Later it was ruled by an oligarchy of aristocrats who owned the best land and controlled political life.  Even later, Athens had serious economic and political troubles.  Many Athenian farmers were sold into slavery for nonpayment of their debts to aristocrats.
  18. 18. Athens  Solon was appointed leader to handle these problems.  He canceled these debts but did not give land to the poor.  Because the poor could not obtain land, internal strife continued. It led to tyranny.
  19. 19. Athens  Pisistratus seized power  He helped the merchants and gave the poor land.  Athenians revolted against his son and ended the tyranny in 510 BC  Athenians appointed the reformer Cleisthenes leader.
  20. 20. Athens  Under Cleisthenes, the assembly of all male citizens had final authority to pass laws after free and open debate.  For this reason, Cleisthenes’ reforms laid the foundation for Athenian democracy.