Micro Ch 11

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Micro Ch 11

  1. 1. Chapter 11 The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea
  2. 2. Classification of Prokaryotes Figure 10.6
  3. 3. Domain Bacteria <ul><li>Phylum Proteobacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Gram-negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 sub groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The  (alpha) Proteobacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The  (beta) Proteobacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The  (gamma) Proteobacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The  (delta) Proteobacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The  (alpha) Proteobacteria <ul><li> Proteobacteria include most proteobacteria capable of growth at very low nutrient levels </li></ul><ul><li>Some have unusual morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Includes agriculturally important bacteria </li></ul>Dichotomous key
  5. 5. The  (beta) Proteobacteria <ul><li>Usually found in sewage and decomposition areas </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Neisseria gonorrhoeae which causes gonorrhea and Neisseria meningitidis cause of meningitis </li></ul>
  6. 6. The  (gamma) Proteobacteria <ul><li>Largest proteobacteria subgroup </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the Pseudomonas which are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunistic pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolically diverse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains Enterobacteriales </li></ul>See next slide
  7. 7. <ul><li>The  (gamma) Proteobacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterobacteriales (enterics); inhabit intestinal tracts of humans and other animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative, facultative anaerobic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterobacter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia**, e.g E. coli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Klebsiella </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella** </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serratia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shigella </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
  8. 8. The  (delta) Proteobacteria <ul><li>They include bacteria that attack other bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Also include Sulfur reducing bacteria </li></ul>
  9. 9. The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria <ul><li>Slender and helical </li></ul><ul><li>Helicobacter causes peptic ulcers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classification of Prokaryotes Figure 10.6
  11. 11. The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria
  12. 12. <ul><li>Gram-positive and Low G + C ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is made up of base pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine (G) + Cytosine (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine (A) + Thymine (T) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes important endospore forming bacteria </li></ul>Firmicutes Includes Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococci Includes Streptococcus
  13. 13. Actinobacteria <ul><li>Gram-positive and High G + C ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Take on many shapes/forms (pleomorphic) </li></ul>Causes TB and leprosy
  14. 14. Domain Archaea <ul><li>Lack Peptidoglycan </li></ul><ul><li>Many different morphologies </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in extreme environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperthermophiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methanogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme halophiles </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>PCR indicates up to 10,000 bacteria/gm of soil. Many bacteria have not been identified or characterized because they: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haven't been cultured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need special nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are part of complex food chains requiring the products of other bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be cultured to understand their metabolism and ecological role </li></ul></ul>Microbial Diversity

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