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Algorithms for extending arithmetic precision through compensated summation or arithmetics like doubledouble rely on operations commonly called twoSum and twoProduct. The current draft of the IEEE 754 standard specifies these operations under the names augmentedAddition and augmentedMultiplication. These operations were included after three decades of experience because of a motivating new use: bitwise reproducible arithmetic. Standardizing the operations provides a hardware acceleration target that can provide at least a 33% speed improvements in reproducible dot product, placing reproducible dot product almost within a factor of two of common dot product. This paper provides history and motivation for standardizing these operations. We also define the operations, explain the rationale for all the specific choices, and provide parameterized test cases for new boundary behaviors.
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