Manpower development for technological change


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Technological Change trends in Human Resource

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Manpower development for technological change

  2. 2. What is the Meaning of Manpower Development -Manpower development, now commonly referred to as human resource development, is an ongoing process that analyzes, forecasts and projects an organization's future manpower requirements PROCESS: -Manpower development is a process that seeks to optimize an organization's usage of its human resources.
  3. 3. 21st-Century HRM HRM Challenges: 1. Productivity—  is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is a measure of the efficiency of production. 2. Job satisfaction—a feeling of well-being and acceptance of one’s place in the organization 3. Turnover—permanent loss of workers from the organization (People who quit would be considered voluntary turnover, while people who were fired would be involuntary turnover.) 4. Absenteeism—temporary absence of employees from the workplace
  4. 4. The HRM Strategic View Strategy and strategic planning deal with a process of looking at our organization and environment—both today and in the expected future—and determining what we as an organization want to do to meet the requirements of that expected future.
  5. 5. Sustainable competitive advantage is a capability that creates value for customers that rivals can’t copy quickly or easily, and allows the organization to differentiate its products or services from competitor products or services. The main goals of strategic HRM 1. 2. the correct number of employees with the levels and type of skills the organization requires control systems to make sure employees are working toward the achievement of the goals in the strategic plan.
  6. 6. Technology and Knowledge - - Knowledge workers and the knowledge-based firm - Knowledge workers are workers who “use their head more than their hands”—knowledge workers gather and interpret informa­tion in order to improve a product or process for their organization. The pace of technological change - One of the most critical issues that we face in the 21st century is that technology is currently outstripping our ability to use it.
  7. 7. Labor Demographics - Companies are already seeing a reduction in the number and quality of potential employees, as well as greater gender, ethnic, and age diversity than at any time in the past. Productivity and Competitiveness Through HRM - managing productivity is the main job of any manager in an organiza­tion.
  8. 8. HRM SKILLS Technical Skills - the ability to use methods and techniques to perform a task. Human Relations Skills - the ability to understand, communicate, and work well with individuals and groups through developing effective relationships. Conceptual and Design Skills - Conceptual and design skills include the ability to evaluate a situation, identify alternatives, select a reasonable alternative, and make a decision to implement a solution to a problem.
  9. 9. Business Skills - are the analytical and quantitative skills, including in-depth knowledge of how the business works and its budgeting and strategic planning processes, that are necessary for a man­ager to understand and contribute to the profitability of their organization.
  10. 10. The Environmental Context of Human Resource Management What is Human Resource Management? HRM is the set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective workforce. Why Human Resource Management? Human resources are critical for effective organizational functioning.
  11. 11. Job Analysis Job Analysis is a systematic procedure for studying jobs to determine their various elements and requirements.  Job Description is a list of elements that make up a particular job.  Job Specification is a list of the qualifications [skills, abilities, etc.] required to perform a particular job. Job Analysis is the basis for recruiting and selecting employees for existing or new jobs and is used to prepare job evaluation forms and to determine compensation levels.
  12. 12. Job Description and Job Specification Source: Used with permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.
  13. 13. Attracting Human Resources How do HRMs forecast human resource demand and supply? Assessing trends. Sales forecast analysis. Forecasting the labor supply. Plan for dealing with predicted shortfalls or overstaffing.
  14. 14. Attracting Human Resources Replacement Chart – lists each important managerial position in the organization and identifies: who occupies it how long he or she will probably remain in that position who is or will be a qualified replacement
  15. 15. Attracting Human Resources Employee Information System: Generally a computerized record on each employee’s education, skills, experience and career aspirations. Easily able to identify any and all employees who are eligible to fill positions.
  16. 16. Human Resource Planning Assess trends in: External labor market Current employees Future organizational plans General economic trends Predict demand Forecast internal supply Forecast external supply Compare future demand and internal supply Plan for dealing with predicted shortfalls or overstaffing
  17. 17. Recruiting Human Resources What is recruiting? Attracting qualified people to apply for the jobs that are open. What are the forms of recruiting? Internal recruiting: considering present employees as candidates for openings. External recruiting: attracting people outside the organization to apply for jobs.
  18. 18. Recruiting Human Resources It is important to bring about a good person-job fit. The Realistic Job Preview [RJP] provides the applicant with a real picture of what the job would be like.
  19. 19. Recruiting Human Resources Validation – determining the extent to which a selection device is really predictive of future job performance. Predictive validation – involves collecting scores of employees or applicants on a device to be validated and correlating their scores with actual job performance.
  20. 20. Recruiting Human Resources Content validation – uses logic and job analysis data to establish that the selection device measures the exact skills needed for successful job performance. Can the applicant actually perform the duties?
  21. 21. Recruiting Human Resources Selection Processes: Application Blanks Tests of ability, skill aptitude or knowledge Interviews Assessment Centers – managerial simulations Polygraphs, Drug tests, Physicals, Credit checks
  22. 22. Selecting Human Resources Validation, determining the extent to which a selection device is predictive of future job performance Application Blanks Interviews Tests Assessment Centers
  23. 23. Developing Human Resources What does training mean? Teaching operational or technical employees how to do the job for which they were hired. What is employee development? Teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for both present and future jobs.
  24. 24. The Training Process
  25. 25. What Is a Performance Appraisal? A Performance Appraisal is a formal assessment of how well an employee is doing his or her job. There are various form of appraisals such as: Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale [BARS], a sophisticated rating method in which supervisors construct a rating scale associated with behavioral anchors.
  26. 26. What Is a Performance Appraisal? Common Appraisal Methods: Objective Methods – includes actual output and special performance tests. Judgmental Methods – ranking and rating techniques are the most common. Rating differs from Ranking in that it compares each employee with a fixed standard rather than comparison with other employees.
  27. 27. Graphic Rating Scales for a Bank Teller
  28. 28. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
  29. 29. What Is a Performance Appraisal? Errors in Performance Appraisals: ‘Recency’ Error – the tendency to base judgments on the subordinate's most recent performance because it is most easily recalled. Overuse of one part of the scale – giving everyone a rating of ‘average’, being too easy or too tough. Halo Error – allowing the assessment of an employee on one dimension to ‘spread’ to ratings of that employee on other dimensions.
  30. 30. What Is a Performance Appraisal? 360-degree Feedback - is a performance appraisal system in which managers are evaluated by everyone around them – their boss, their peers and their subordinates.
  31. 31. What Is a Performance Appraisal? Performance Feedback: Last step in the performance appraisal Discussion should generally be focused on the facts: The assessed level of performance How and why that assessment was made How it can be improved in the future
  32. 32. The environmenTal ConTexT of human resourCe managemenT What is HRM The set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective work force. The Strategic Importance of HRM •HRM has become increasingly important as firms have come to realize the value of their human resources in improving productivity. •HRM is critical to the bottom-line performance of the firm. •HR planning has become part of the strategic planning process.
  33. 33. Environmental Context of the HR • The Strategic Importance of HRM • The Legal Environment of HRM GENERIC division • Change in strategy of HR Environmental challenges that can present may be categorized as Under Cultural diversity The changing nature of work Mergers and takeovers Corporate downsizing  Layoffs and retention issues  language changes and diversity  external influence
  34. 34. Environmental context is the one where HR has to focus on these Factors Internal Factors External Factors Legal Factors
  35. 35. Factors influence of environmental factor of HR Business culture Legislation General economic conditions Industry sector Technological change Flexibility and diversification Employee relations Workforce composition
  36. 36. Factor affecting the HR Process from other Holistic VIEW
  37. 37. Internal environment Values and ethics Diversity and employment inequality Organization structure Work force composition Workplace well being Learning's and T&D Language issues
  38. 38. External environment  Economy and labour market  Labour force and diversification  Science and Technology  Society and Environmental context  Political environment  legal Environment
  39. 39. Legal environment •Wage distribution and compensation norms •Labour Laws •Maternity and other Government laws •PMS •legalities of security and social norms •Work distribution and job equality
  40. 40. Current Issues with the HR Worker productivity Quality improvement Downsizing The changing workforce Global economy The impact of government Quality of working life Technology and training
  41. 41. What are extended HR functions mission and goals environmental analysis strategic formulation strategy implementation strategy evaluation. Because of the following relation
  42. 42. • • • • • • • Introduction Concept and Nature of Innovation Types of Innovation Sources of Innovation Models of Innovation Innovation Process Influencing Factors
  43. 43. • Explain the concept, components and characteristics of innovation • Describe the models and sources of innovation • Know the stages in the innovation process • Identify the factors that contribute to successful innovation
  44. 44. • Managing technology involves continuous effort in creating technology, developing novel products and services, and successfully marketing them • It requires:  Great creativity  Investment in R&D Labs Marketplace
  45. 45. • Invention is an idea for a novel product or process • Innovation is the introduction of new products, processes or services into the market place • Technological innovation begins with invention – a sub-set of innovation • The process of technological innovation is a complex set of activities that transforms ideas and scientific knowledge into physical reality and real-world applications - converts knowledge into useful products and services that have socioeconomic impact.
  46. 46. • Characteristics of organizational innovation are as follows: • An innovation must be...  A tangible product, process or procedure within an organization  New to the social setting within which it is introduced  Intentional rather than accidental  A challenging change  Aimed at predicting benefit to the organization  Public in its effects
  47. 47. • Fundamental components of the model are the same but the nature of the business may dictate variations in implementation techniques.
  48. 48. Martin (1994) illustrate the technological innovation process as a chain equation • • Reveals the important role of entrepreneurship in connecting ideas to the marketplace The management role in the innovation chain emphasizes: – The need for stability and control at a certain phase of the innovation process – A formalized managerial structure tends to produce incremental and process innovations more than radical innovations
  49. 49. Mills (1996) provided very simplified but interesting definitions for several components of the process of technological innovation known as minimalist definitions. – – – – – – Science : How things are. Technology : How to do things. Management : How to get things done. Technology management : Doing things. Entrepreneurship : Doing things to make money Innovation : Doing entrepreneurship
  50. 50. 8 Stages of Technological Innovation
  51. 51. 1. Basic Research  Increase our general understanding of the laws of nature  Generating knowledge over a long period of time  May or may not result in specific application 1. Applied Research  Directed toward solving one or more of society’s problems (specific problems)  Eg.: research conducted to develop a drug for treating a known disease 1. Technology Development  Human activity that converts knowledge and ideas into physical hardware, software or service - prototype 1. Technology Implementation  Set of activities associated with introducing a product into the marketplace – success commercial introduction
  52. 52. 5. Production / Manufacturing  Set of activities associated with the widespread conversion of design concepts or ideas into products and services – production control, logistic 5. Marketing  Set of activities that ensures that consumers embrace the technology – promotion, distribution strategy 5. Proliferation / Diffusion  Strategy that ensure the widespread use of the technology and its dominance in the marketplace  Depends on methods of exploiting the technology 5. Technology enhancement  Set of activities associated with maintaining a competitive edge for the technology - increases the life cycle of the technology
  53. 53. • Border crossings (national and sectorial) – Increasing of science-technology articles with international coauthorship and also between academic and government • Emergence of complex technologies – Fit to and cause from diverse demands, perspectives, approaches and contexts • Age of knowledge and distributed intelligence, KDI – Network of knowledge – integration of knowledge from different sources and domains across space and time – Learning and intelligent systems - exploring the human behavior in collaboration with machines – Computing challenges - exploit the numeric barrier
  54. 54. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The presence of scientific knowledge – technological change is dependent on scientific discoveries The level of maturity of the underlying science – a wide base of knowledge enhances technological development The type of technology and the phase of its life cycle – innovation rate is high for emerging and growing technology The level of investment in technology – technological development is connected to the level of R&D funding The level of political commitment – the pace of innovation is sensitive to high level policy decisions The ability to borrow advances from related technologies – advances in communication technology are dependent on satellite components The diffusion rate and patterns - a technology that is widely diffused in the market may delay other technologies from entry
  55. 55. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Recognition to Technology Time to Market Multiple-site continuous R&D Improvements in Communication The Push for Education Changes in Institutional Interactions Changes in Organizational Structure
  56. 56.  Technological innovation is a sub-set of innovation  Technological innovations may arise from sources within or outside the organization  Innovation process has been viewed as a sequence of separable stages  Two basic variations of innovation models are technology push and market pull
  57. 57. HR & Technology Impact of technology on HR functions: HR functions such as: Recruitment Training & development Performance management Payroll & attendance records Employee benefits etc
  58. 58. The major advantages of this erecruitment are: Economical way to publish job openings Greater reach An easy tool to get connected to people with niche skills Speeds up the recruitment process (faster posting of jobs, quicker applicant response, and rapid hiring). 24*7 access to the online resumes.
  59. 59. Virtual organization Virtual organization is the network of companies or employees connected by computers. Virtual workers can work from wherever they want, from home, car or abroad.
  60. 60. The major disadvantages of the use of technology on HR are: When organizations depend more on technology as a substitute to human interactions, loss of potential talents may happen. HR is all about managing people, which requires human interaction and face to face communication, and as human element will always remain significant in HR, a balance should be maintained between the IT and the human aspect.
  61. 61. The major disadvantages of the use of technology on HR are: Technological obsolescence also poses to be a problem. Obsolescence occurs very fast that the information relied on obsolete technologies becomes inaccessible in certain cases. Hence, the ROI for the HR technology systems, if not estimated and measured will lead to problems.
  62. 62. Implications of new technologies on organization. The world has become a global village. The rate at which information flows from one region of the world to the other at the speed of light or at the click of the mouse, have eroded the barriers of time, geographical location and the bureaucracy of hierarchical organization in the way trade is conducted.
  63. 63. In other words the impact and implications of new technologies on organization is phenomenal.   “We have modified our environment so radically that we must modify ourselves in order to exist in this environment.” ( Wiener .1957 cited in Kenaroglu. N.A)
  64. 64. Technology Transfer: - Technology transfer is the term used to describe the processes by which technological knowledge moves within or between organisations. International technology transfer refers to the way in which this occurs between countries.
  65. 65. - The technological knowledge that is transferred can assume various forms. It can be embodied in goods (including physical goods, plant and animal organisms), services and people, and organisational arrangements, or codified in blueprints, designs, technical documents, and the content of innumerable types of training. Alternatively it can be communicated through flows of tacit knowledge – i.e. knowledge that has not been fully codified, and remains embodied in the skills of people.
  66. 66. New Issues in Manpower Training and Career Development: 1) Aligning training with business strategy: Aligning training activities with business strategy has been a goal of most training units for a long time. This is because organisations have begun to realize that training is a tool not only for getting better job performance, but also for creating organisation-wide adaptability.
  67. 67. 2) Changing demographics: Most demographic shifts affect the business nowadays. Principle among these demographic shifts are: • Increased ethnic and cultural diversity • Differing generational values • Significant fluctuations in generational birth rates • Aging of the population (baby boomers)
  68. 68. 3) Knowledge workers: It is predicted that there will be a shortage of labour in areas requiring advanced or specialized knowledge and skill. Companies are now trying to find ways to maintain the competency levels of existing employees and provide appropriate competencies to new employees.
  69. 69. 4) Training as a continuous improvement: Effective training is a continuous performance improvement process. Training does not start and stop with each program. The training function in organisations continuously searches for performance improvement opportunities.
  70. 70. 5) Quality: High quality products and services are necessary to stay in business in today’s competitive markets and thus have high priority for most businesses. Once a company takes a decision to ensure quality measures it therefore is prepared to engage in a substantial amount of training.
  71. 71. 6) Legal issues: Equal employment opportunity, affirmative action, sexual harassment, and related legislation have placed legal requirements on businesses that affect how training is managed. Some of the important legal issues are: • Equity • Required training • Liability for injury or illness • Confidentiality • Copyrighted materials
  72. 72. 7) Job analysis as an indicator: An effective job analysis should be done in order the find the deficiency in the employee’s knowledge and skill so that these gaps are filled. Therefore job descriptions and job specifications will help in indicating the strengths and weaknesses.
  73. 73. 8) Trainer training: In order for training programs to be more efficient, it is important that the trainers themselves should have adequate and specialized type of training. 9) Technology: The methods and techniques used by the trainers should provide an active participation of the trainees in the learning process, so that they have grasp and assimilation of the knowledge and information gained through various methods and techniques.
  74. 74. Context-Based Technology Evaluation In order to determine a fit between systems and technology, it is necessary to evaluate technologies within the context that they will be used. All technologies work well within a specific context and under certain conditions. For example, Web services work well for asynchronous communication over the Internet. In a business environment these conditions are very common. However, this may not be the case in a military tactical command and control environment where high performance and availability requirements
  75. 75. Step 1: Identify Technology Usage Context and Evaluation Goals Step 2: Plan The Evaluation 2.1 Form Evaluation Team 2.2 Identify Stakeholders 2.3 Select an Approach 2.4 Estimate Effort and Schedule Step 3: Develop Model Problems 3.1 Develop Hypotheses 3.2 Develop Criteria 3.3 Design Model Solution
  76. 76. 3.4 Implement and Evaluate Model Solution Against Criteria Step 4: Analyze Model Problem Results Against Technology
  77. 77. THANK YOU!