A. Earth’s Tilt
Earth is tilted at a 23.5° angle relative to the sun.
The seasons are related to the earth’s tilt and revolution.
Areas of Earth get more, less direct sun at different times
The solstice marks beginning of summer, winter.
sun’s rays directly overhead at noon at furthest
points north and south.
The equinox marks the beginning of spring and autumn.
day and night are equal in length.
A. Weather and Climate
Weather—atmospheric conditions at a particular location and
Climate—weather conditions at one location over a long
Example: Northern Russia has a cold climate
B. What Causes the Weather?
Sun: amount of solar energy received.
Water vapor: determines whether there will be precipitation.
Precipitation—water droplets falling as rain, snow, sleet, hail.
Cloud cover: clouds may hold water vapor.
C. What Causes the Weather?
Landforms and bodies of water.
Land heats rapidly, loses heat rapidly.
Elevation: as elevation increases, air becomes
Water heats slowly, loses heat slowly.
Thin air cannot hold moisture.
Air movement: distributes moisture and solar energy.
1. Precipitation comes about when:
a. warm air rises, cools, loses ability to hold water
water vapor condenses into droplets.
water droplets form clouds.
heavy clouds release droplets as rain, snow.
Three types of precipitation
3. Rain shadow—land on leeward side of hills,
a. little precipitation in rain shadow.
Huge storms called hurricanes, or typhoons in Asia:
form over warm, tropical ocean waters.
hit land with heavy rain, high winds, storm surge.
Tornado—a powerful, funnel-shaped column of spiraling air:
from strong thunderstorms.
capable of immense damage.
Look at the typhoons in this
image and describe how the
wind and water appear to
Blizzard—heavy snowstorm with strong winds, reduced
Drought: long period of time with either no or minimal
Water spreads out over normally dry land.
Examine the photograph and
guess what economic problems
might be caused by the