Chapter 20 Section 3 Western Europe and North America
I. Western Europe: Recovery A. The Marshall Plan helped the countries of W. Europe recover relatively rapidly from the devastation of WWII. 1. The 1950s and 1960s were periods of dramatic economic growth and prosperity in W. Europe.
B. For almost 25 years after WWII, France was mostly led by Charles de Gaulle. 1. He established the 4th Republic, which featured a strong parliament and a weak presidency. a. But the government was largely ineffective, and de Gaulle withdrew from politics. b. He returned in 1958 and est. the 5th Republic. 2. France became a major industrial producer and exporter. 3. Government deficits and a rise in the cost of living led to unrest. a. De Gaulle resigned from office in 1969.
C. From 1949-1963, Konrad Adenauer, leader of the Christian Democratic Union, served as chancellor of W. Germany. 1. Under Adenauer’s leadership and that of the minister of finance, Ludwig Erhard, W. Germany’s economy was revived. a. The unemployment rate fell greatly. 2. The Social Democratic Party, led by Willy Brandt, became W. Germany’s leading political party in 1969.
D. At the end of WWII, G.B. had large economic problems. 1. The Labour Party, which promised far- reaching reforms, defeated Churchill’s Conservative Party. 2. Prime Minister Clement Attlee and the Labour Party created a modern welfare state. a. A state in which the government takes responsibility for providing citizens with services and a minimal standard of living. 3. The British welfare state became the norm for most European states after the war.
II. Western Europe: The Move toward Unity A. After WWII, many Europeans wanted European unity. 1. Nationalism, however, was too strong for European nations to give up their sovereignty. a. Instead the countries focused on economic unity.
B. In 1957, France, W. Germany, the Benelux countries, and Italy created the European Economic Community, also known as the Common Market. 1. The six-member nations would impose no tariffs on each other’s goods.B. By the 1960s, the EEC was an important trading bloc—a group of nations with a common purpose.
III. The Development of Canada A. After WWII, Canada increased its industrial development. 1. Much of the Canadian growth was financed by people from the United States, leading to U.S. ownership of many Canadian businesses. 2. Some Canadians feared American economic domination of Canada.
B. Canada was a founding member of the UN in 1945 and joined NATO in 1949.C. The Liberal government of Canada created a welfare state by enacting a national social security system and a national health insurance program.
IV. The Emergence of a New Society A. Postwar Western society had a changing social structure. 1. Managers and technicians joined the middle-class groups. 2. The number of people in farming declined dramatically. 3. The number if industrial workers declined as white-collar workers increased. 4. A consumer society developed as the real wages increased.
B. Buying on credit became widespread in the 1950s. The automobile was a sign of consumerism.C. Women in many Western countries had gained the right to vote after WWI. 1. Women in France and Italy gained voting rights in 1945.
D. Women who had worked during WWII returned to traditional roles.E. Birthrates rose, creating a “baby boom” in the late 1940s and the 1950s.F. By the end of the 1950s, birthrates declined. 1. Married Women entered the workforce. 2. Women earned much less than men did for equal work. 3. Many women worked and raised families
G. By the late 1960s, women renewed their interest in the women’s liberation movement. 1. The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir influenced both the American and European women’s movements.
H. Growing discontent in European and U.S. universities led students to revolt in the late 1960s. 1. In the 1970s and 1980s, student’s rebels became middle-class professionals.