I. Confrontation of the Superpowers A. The division between W. Europe and Soviet-controlled E. Europe was the beginning of the Cold War. 1. The Soviet Union feared the capitalist West. 2. The U.S. feared communism. B. After WWII, the United States and Great Britain wanted the Eastern European nations to determine their own governments. 1. Stalin feared that the Eastern European nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free elections.
C. In early 1947 Truman issued the Truman Doctrine, which stated that the U.S. would give money to countries threatened by Communist expansion. 1. Dean Acheson, U.S. secretary of state, stated that the U.S. was concerned that communism would spread throughout the free world if left unchecked.
D. In early 1947, the European Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan, began. 1. This program was set up to rebuild war- torn Europe.E. The Soviet Union and its economically and politically dependent E. European satellite states refused to participate in the Marshall Plan.
Iron Curtain –A term used byWinston Churchillto describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.
F. In 1949, The Soviet Union set up the Council for Mutual Assistance (COMECON) as a response to the Marshall Plan. 1. COMECON was established to help the economies of E. European states.G. In 1947, the U.S. adopted the policy of containment to keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves.
H. By 1948, G.B., U.S. and France worked to unify the three western sections of Germany and Berlin and create a W. German government. 1. The Soviets opposed the creation of a W. German state, so they tried to prevent it by setting up a blockade of W. Berlin. 2. The U.S. and G.B. set up the Berlin Air Lift to fly in supplies to W. Berlin. a. Soviets ended the blockade in May 1949.
I. The Federal Republic of Germany, or W. Germany, was formally created in September of 1949. 1. A month later, the German Democratic Republic was set up by the Soviets. Berlin was divided into two parts.
II. The Spread of the Cold War A. Chinese Communists took control of the government of China in 1949. 1. As a result of the fall of China to communism and the Soviet Union’s explosion of its first atomic bomb in 1949, the Soviet Union and the United States began an arms race, in which both countries built up their armies and weapons.
B. In April 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed. 1. This military alliance, which included G.B., France, other Western European nations, and the U.S. and Canada, agreed to provide mutual help if any one of them was attacked.
C. In 1955, the Soviet Union and Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, E. Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania formed the military alliance called the Warsaw Pact.D. The Korean War began in 1950 when the Communist government of N. Korea, allied with the Soviet Union, tried to take over S. Korea. 1. As a result, the U.S. extended its military alliances around the world. 2. By the mid-1950s, the U.S. was in military alliances with 42 nations.
E. The U.S., G.B., France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia and New Zealand formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) to stop the Soviet expansion in the east. 1. Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, G.B. and the U.S. formed the Central Treaty Organizations (CENTO) to prevent Soviet expansion to the south.F. In 1957, the Soviets sent Sputnik I, the first man-made space satellite, to orbit the earth. 1. Americans feared there was a missile gap between the Soviet Union and the U.S.
G. August 1961, on the order of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, the East German government began to build a wall between W. Berlin and E. Berlin in order to stop the flow of E Germans escaping into W. Berlin.
III. The Cuban Missile Crisis A. In 1959, President Kennedy approved a secret plan for Cuban exiles to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs and revolt against the Soviet-supported Cuban dictator, Fidel Castro. 1. Invasion Failed. B. The Soviet Union sent arms and military advisers to Cuba. 1. In 1962 Khrushchev began to place nuclear missiles in Cuba to counteract U.S. nuclear weapons placed in Turkey, close to the Soviet Union.
C. In October 1962, President Kennedy found out that Soviet Ships carrying nuclear missiles were headed to Cuba. 1. Kennedy ordered a blockade of Cuba to stop the ships from reaching Cuba.D. Khrushchev agreed to send the ships back and remove nuclear missiles in Cuba if Kennedy agreed not to invade Cuba. 1. Kennedy agreed.D. The Cuban missile crisis brought the world close to nuclear war.
IV. Vietnam and the Domino Theory A. The Vietnam War had an important impact on the Cold War. 1. Its purpose was to keep the Communist government of N. Vietnam from gaining control of S. Vietnam. B. U.S. policy makers applied the domino theory to the Vietnam War. 1. According to this theory, if S. Vietnam fell to communism, then other countries in Asia would fall like dominoes to communism.
C. An antiwar movement escalated in the U.S. as a result of the growing number of American troops sent to Vietnam and the mounting destruction of the war, which brought into American homes by TV.D. Johnson decided not to run for reelection because of public opinion against his handling of the war.
1. Former VP Nixon won the election with the promise to end the war and reunite the American people.2. In 1973, Nixon reached an agreement with N. Vietnam allowing the U.S. to withdraw its troops.3. Within two years, Vietnam was forcibly reunited by Communist armies from the North.