I. West Africa a. European used deception in order to get African lands and natural resources. b. From 1880-1890 almost all of Africa was under European rule. i. Imperialism was driven by rivalries. c. West Africa was particularly affected by the slave trade.
d. As slavery declined, Europe’s interest in other forms of trade increased. i. Manufactured goods for peanuts, timber, hide, and palm oil. ii. G.B. established settlements along the Gold Coast in Sierra Leone. 1. This growing presence caused tensions with local African governments, who feared for their independence.e. In 1874 G.B. annexed the west coastal states as the first colony of Gold Coast.f. France controlled the largest part of W. Africa, and Germany controlled Togo, Cameroon, and German Southwest Africa.
II. North Africa a. Egypt had been part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1805, Muhammad Ali seized power and established a separate Egyptian state. b. Ali introduced a series of reforms to modernize Egypt. He modernized the army, set up a public school system, and helped create small industries.
c. The growing economic importance of the Nile Valley along with the development of steamships gave Europeans a desire to build a canal east of Cairo to connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas. i. In 1854 France signed a contract to build the Suez Canal.
d. G.B. bought Egypt’s share in the Suez Canal. i. Egypt became a British protectorate in 1915.e. The British wanted to control the Sudan. In 1881 Muhammad Ahmad defeated the British military. i. The British regained the Sudan again in 1898.
f. The French had colonies in N. Africa. In 1879, 150,000 French had settled in the region of Algeria. i. French made Tunisia and Morocco protectorates.g. Italy joined the competition for N. Africa by trying to take over Ethiopia. i. Ethiopian forces defeated the Italians in 1896. ii. Italy seized Turkish Tripoli and renamed it Libya.
III. Central Africa a. European explorers had generated European interest in the dense tropical jungles of Central Africa. b. David Livingstone explored Africa for 30 years. i. Henry Stanley encouraged G.B. to send settlers to the Congo River basin.
c. When Britain refused, Stanley turned to King Leopold II of Belgium. i. King Leopold hired Stanley to set up Belgian settlements in the Congo. ii. Belgium’s claim to the vast territories of the Congo worried other European states.d. France especially rushed to gain territories in C. Africa. i. Belgium territories S. of the Congo River. ii. France territories N. of the Congo River.
IV. East Africa a. By 1875 G.B. and Germany had become the chief rivals in E. Africa. b. Germany was one of many European nations interested in E. African colonies. i. At the 1884 Berlin Conference, the major European powers divided up E. Africa. ii. No African delegates were present at the conference.
V. South Africa a. By 1865 close to two hundred thousand white people had moved to the southern part of Africa. b. The Boers (original Dutch settlers) occupied Cape Town. They believed white supremacy was ordained by God. i. British will seize these lands. ii. Boers fled from British rule. 1. Est. S. African Republic. 2. Put indigenous peoples on reservations.
c. The Boers frequently battled the Zulu, an indigenous people. i. The Zulu rose under Shaka. ii. Later the British will defeat the Zulu.d. In the 1880s British policy in S. Africa was directed By Cecil Rhodes. i. He set up diamond and gold companies. ii. Renamed Transvaal, Rhodesia, after himself.
e. Rhodes’s ambitions led to his downfall in 1896. i. Forced to resign when it was discovered his plans to overthrow the Boer government without British approval. ii. Conflict broke out between the British and the Boers, leading to war.
f. The Boer War went from 1899 to 1902. i. Guerrilla resistance by the Boers angered the British. ii. Burned crops and sent 150,000 women and children into detention camps, causing 26,000 to die.g. In 1910 the British created the independent Union of S. Africa, combining the Cape Colony and the Boer Republic. i. To appease the Boers, the policy was that only whites could vote.
V. Colonial Rule in Africa a. By 1914 only Liberia, which had been created by freed U.S. slaves and Ethiopia were free of European domination. b. Britain relied on indirect rule to govern its colonies. i. This system will slow tribal tensions among native peoples. c. Most other European governments used direct rule in Africa. d. The French ideal was to assimilate the African peoples. They did not want to preserve African traditions.
VI. Rise of African Nationalism a. A new class of African leaders emerged in the early 20th century. i. They were intellectuals that were educated in the west. ii. They Admired Western culture and wanted to introduce some western ideas into their culture. 1. They saw certain aspects of European culture as superior to their own cultures.
b. These same people often resented the foreigners and their contempt for Africa. i. They believed there was a gap between Western democratic theory and Western colonial practice. 1. Africans had little chance to participate in the colonial institutions, and many had lost their farms for sweatshops or on plantations.
c. Middle-class Africans also could complain, not just the poor peasants. i. Africans were paid much less than whites.d. During the first quarter of the 20th century, resentment turned to action. i. Educated native peoples began to organize political parties and movements to end foreign rule.