Chapter 10 Section 4Colonial Empires and the AmericanRevolution
I. Colonial Empires on Latin Americaa. Spanish and Portuguese colonized theAmericas creating what we know asLatin America.b. Latin America was a multiracialsociety.i. Mestizos- Europeans and NativeAmericans.ii. Mulattoes- Europeans and Africans.
c. Spain and Portuguese soughtways to profit from their colonies.i. Gold and Silverii. Farmingiii. Trade from the parent country.d. Colonial Rule in Brazil will lastover 300 Years.
e. European rulers were determinedto spread Christianity.i. They brought Native Americansinto missions to be converted.ii. Missionaries tried to control thelives of the Native Americans.iii. Catholic Church built schools in thecolonies to teach Native Americanstudents the three R’s.
f. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz urgedwomen to be educated.i. She was a well known nun/literaryfigure.ii. Denied entry into University of Mexicobecause she was a woman.
II. Britain and British North Americaa. The U.K. of Great Britain was formedin 1707 when the governments ofEngland and Scotland united.b. The monarch and Parliament sharedpower.i. Parliament had upper hand becausethey could make laws, levy taxes, andpass the budget.
c. Hanoverians took power in 1714 George I 1stKing.i. Robert Walpole G.B. 1stprime minister.ii. The prime minister allowed handlingParliament.d. G.B. expanded into N. America.i. Britain controlled Canada and 13colonies.ii. Many major eastern cities didn’t wantBritain to run their affairs.
III.The American Revolutiona. Following the 7 Years war, Britainneeded more revenues from thecolonies.i. 1765 Parliaments imposed the StampAct.ii. Act was repealed in 1766.
b. The American colonies and GreatBritain had numerous crises in the1770’s.i. The first Continental Congressconvened in 1774.ii. Shots fired at Lexington and Concordbeginning the war for independence in1775.iii. 1776 Signing of Jefferson’s Declarationof Independence.
c. Colonists needed help from foreigncountries.i. France supplied arms and men, andformally recognized the American statein 1777.ii. Spanish and Dutch also joined againstGreat Britain.
d. Colonists were able to defeat theBritish army at Yorktown in 1781.e. Treaty of Paris (1783)i. Officially recognized the Independenceof the American Colonies.ii. American now controlled land fromAppalachians to the Mississippi River.
IV.The Birth of a New Nationa. The U.S. had little interest in forminga country with a strong centralgovernment.b. New Government Articles ofConfederationi. Lacked the power to deal with thenation’s problems.
c. In 1787 delegates met to revise theArticles.i. Became known as the ConstitutionalConvention.d. Proposed a federal system.i. Power is shared between the nationaland state governments.ii. National Government had the power tolevy taxes, raise an army, regulatetrade, and create a national currency.
e. Federal government divided intothree branches in a system of checksand balances.i. Executive (President)ii. Legislative (Congress)iii. Judicial (Courts)f. Bill of Rights helped get theConstitution adopted.i. Many of these rights were derived fromthe natural rights proposed by theeighteenth-century philosophers.