IB Biology Core 2.3: Eukaryotic Cells


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IB Biology Core 2.3: Eukaryotic Cells

  1. 1. IB Biology2 Cells2.3 Eukaryotic CellsAll syllabus statements ©IBO 2007All images CC or public domain or link to original material.Jason de Nys http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Biological_cell.svg
  2. 2. 2.3.1.Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell
  3. 3. 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each named structure. The Nucleus contains the chromosomes which comprise most of the DNA in a cell - It is the largest organelle - It has a double layer membrane - mRNA, transcribed from the DNA in the nucleus, exits through pores more in 3.3, 3.4 and 7.1 and 7.2 - Some cells have multiple nuclei The bright blue stains are nuclei in HeLa cells. Read “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks” for a fascinating story of the origin of HeLa cellshttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HeLa_cells_stained_with_Hoechst_33258.jpg
  4. 4. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diagram_human_cell_nucleus.svg
  5. 5. The Cell membrane is the boundary of the cell.• It acts as a “gatekeeper”, preventing the entry or exit of some molecules and facilitating the movement of others.• It is a phospholipid bilayer• It is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide• It is impermeable to water and charged particles, they must enter through special proteins embedded in the membrane More in 2.4 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cell_membrane_detailed_diagram_en.svg
  6. 6. The Mitochondrion (pl. Mitochondria)• The ‘power house’ of the cell• Has a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane• Where aerobic respiration occurs in the cell More in 3.7 and 8.1 Mitochondria in mammalian lung cells Remember: Where else do we see loops of DNA? How does the size of a mitochondrion compare with an average prokaryote? The implications of the answers to these questions are in Option D: Evolution http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_mitochondrion_diagram_en.svg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondria,_mammalian_lung_-_TEM.jpg
  7. 7. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Spot the difference? Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/
  8. 8. The ‘spots’ are the difference!The Rough EndoplasmicReticulum is peppered withribosomes that give it therough appearanceIt is where protein synthesisoccurs more in 3.5 and 7.4
  9. 9. The (free) Ribosome, themolecular machineresponsible for proteinsynthesis much, much more in 3.5 and 7.4 A ribosome on the sculpture “Waltz of the Polypeptides” at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory http://www.flickr.com/photos/cryo_mariena/6033827307/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  10. 10. I shall name it……… The internal reticular apparatus!! Pretty catchy… no?*CamilloGolgi *Everybody thought that was a terrible name, so they called it the Golgi apparatus instead http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:C_Golgi.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golgi_in_the_cytoplasm_of_a_macrophage_in_the_alveolus_(lung)_-_TEM.jpg
  11. 11. The Golgi Apparatus is a flattenedstack of membranes responsiblefor the packaging and delivery ofproteins http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nucleus_ER_golgi.svg
  12. 12. Lysosomes are simple, membrane-bound organellesfull of enzymes that digest engulfed bacteria andviruses and large moleculesfor recycling. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lysosome.jpg
  13. 13. Image from an amazing site by teacher Andrew Brownhttp://www.tokresource.org/tok_classes/biobiobio/biomenu/eukaryotic_cells/index.htm
  14. 14. 2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondrion Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  15. 15. What can you see?
  16. 16. 2.3.4 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Compare Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items, referring to both (all) of them throughout Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Small cells Relatively larger cells Always unicellular Some multicellular, some unicellular No nucleus: DNA a ‘naked’ loop in the DNA in chromosomes in a membrane- nucleoid region bound nucleus Ribosomes smaller (70s) Ribosomes larger (80s) No mitochondria, respiration in cell Mitochondria, where aerobic respiration membrane and mesosomes occurs Cell division by binary fission Cell division by meiosis or Mitosis Reproduction asexual (some gene Reproduction Sexual or asexual exchange can occur via conjugation) Table modified from Click4Biology
  17. 17. 2.3.5 State three differences between plant and animal cells State: Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. Plants Animals Have a cell wall Don’t have a cell wall Have chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells Don’t have chloroplasts anywhere Carbohydrate stored as starch and plant oils V. Carbohydrate stored as glycogen and animal fat Rigid Shape (due to cell wall) Flexible shape Have a large permanent storage vacuole May have small, temporary vacuoleshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/chubbybat/45407031/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/powi/749366522/
  18. 18. 2.3.6 Outline two roles of extracellular components Bone cells have an Outline: extracellular matrix in Give a brief account or the interstitial spaces summary. (between the cells)of Got a banana? collagen and calcium phosphate; which together form the hard bone. http://www.flickr.com/photos/limonada/14705232/
  19. 19. The other form ofextracellular matrix is thebasement membranes They exist in many tissue types as a form of support e.g. as the lining in blood vesselsYou may already know about theglomerulus in the kidney. A basementmembrane is integral to ultrafiltrationthere.More in HL 11.3 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gallbladder_cholesterolosis_low_mag.jpg
  20. 20. As well as extracellularmatrices in animals,plant have extracellularcomponents….Cell Walls They are made of cellulose and provide structure, support and protection. They maintain cell shape and prevent turgor pressure from rupturing the cell http://www.flickr.com/photos/ah_pao/2590017159/
  21. 21. Further information: Three of the best sites for IB-specific Biology information. The top link takes you to the PPT by Stephen Taylor