IB Biology Core 2.2: Prokaryotic Cells

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IB Biology Core 2.2: Prokaryotic Cells

  1. 1. IB Biology2 Cells2.2 Prokaryotic cellsAll syllabus statements ©IBO 2007All images CC or public domain or link to original material.Jason de Nys http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phylogenetic_Tree_of_Life.png
  2. 2. 2.2.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an example ofa prokaryote. A typical Bacterial cell, very much like an individual E. coli http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Average_prokaryote_cell-_unlabled.svg?uselang=en-gb
  3. 3. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg?uselang=en-gb
  4. 4. 2.2.2 Annotate the diagram with the functions of each of the named structures. The Flagellum (plural: flagella) consists of a molecular motor embedded in the cell membrane and a long spiralling filament that rotates. It propels the bacterium through it’s environment. Flagella can move bacteria at up to 60 body lengths/second By comparison, the fastest land animal, the cheetah, manages only 25 body lengths/second. So slow! I can still bite your face off! http://www.flickr.com/photos/wildlifewanderer/6135269795/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flagellum_base_diagram_en.svg
  5. 5. The Capsule helps the bacteria by: • Being fragile and slippery so that the bacterium is harder to engulf by predators (prevents phagocytosis) • Holding water and preventing desiccation • Preventing infection by viruses • Helping the bacteria to stick to surfaces and each otherWhen bacteria stick together they canform biofilms such as plaque on teeth.This cat on the right has plaque on thetooth marked P3
  6. 6. The nucleoid is an irregularly-shaped region within the cell ofa prokaryote that contains all ormost of the genetic material.Unlike the nucleus of a eukaryoticcell, it is not surrounded bya nuclear membrane.The genome of prokaryoticorganisms generally is a circular,double-stranded piece of DNA, ofwhich multiple copies may exist atany time. (Wikipedia) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_orbit_animated_static_thumb.png
  7. 7. A Plasmid is a DNA molecule that is separate from, and can replicateindependently of, the chromosomal DNA in the nucleoid region.They are double-stranded and, in many cases, circular. Bacteria regularly exchange plasmids through a process called conjugation. A pilus from one bacterium attaches to another bacterium and forms a hollow tube that the plasmid moves through. Pili also have a rôle in attaching bacteria to each other and other surfaces and in preventing phagocytosis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Conjugation.svg
  8. 8. The Cell Membrane regulates thepassage of materials in and out ofthe cellThe Cell Wall stops the cell frombursting due to turgor pressurecaused by high concentrations ofsolutes, proteins etc inside the cellcompared to outside http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilovetextures/6545329063/
  9. 9. The 70S is the cellular machinery that synthesises proteins usingan mRNA template (More about that in 3.5.4)They are free-floating in the cytoplasm http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ribosome_shape.png?uselang=en-gb
  10. 10. So after absorbing all of that information, all you have to do is put it in the diagram! Annotate: to add brief notes to a diagram or graph.http://www.tokresource.org/tok_classes/biobiobio/biomenu/metathink/required_drawings/index.htm
  11. 11. 2.2.3 Identify structures from 2.2.1 in electron micrographs of E. coli. Hmmm… not much to see here, just a bunch of E. coli grown in culture and stuck on a cover slip http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg
  12. 12. A bunch of E. coli fromthe gut of a pig.The strand-like thingsmight be flagella? http://www.flickr.com/photos/microbeworld/5981923914/
  13. 13. E. coli hiding out insidea stoma on a lettuceleaf. A quick wash isn’tgoing to move thosebabies. http://www.flickr.com/photos/agrilifetoday/5226014847/
  14. 14. More E. coliWhy have they beendifferent colours oneach slide? http://www.flickr.com/photos/hukuzatuna/2536878015/
  15. 15. The colours areartificially added to aidvisualisation http://www.flickr.com/photos/hukuzatuna/2536878015/
  16. 16. Here you can see piliand flagellae http://www.icmm.csic.es/spmage07/spmageview.php?id=50 http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:E._coli_fimbriae.png
  17. 17. You may be able tosee a darker region;the nucleolusThe cytoplasmmight also lookgranular, due to allof the ribosomes init. http://click4biology.info/c4b/2/cell2.2.htm
  18. 18. 2.2.4 State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission. Binary fission, also known as Prokaryotic fission, is a form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes (and by some organelles in eukaryotes)↓ Just watch the first bit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Binary_fission.svg
  19. 19. Further information: The presenter above uses Prezi (ooooh!) Both she and the man below have used a diagram from Wikimedia commons. It is acknowledged below, but not above. Tsk tsk! Click4Biology

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