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  1. 1. ITALIAN UNIFICATION Il Risorgimento with pickles and black olives
  2. 2. Carbonari Nationalist rebels against Austrian control of Northern Italy and Spanish rule over the Kingdom of Naples
  3. 3. Young Italy Giuseppe Mazzini Nationalist leader exiled to London but returned for revolution in 1848 Founder of Young Italy Inspiration for generation of independence-loving Italians
  4. 4. Giuseppe Garibaldi Student of Mazzini Helped many South American countries gain independence Led the Red Shirts
  5. 5. Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour Outstanding politician from Piedmont-Sardinia P.M. who ingratiated his country with France and Britain and allied with Napoleon III against Austrians to unite Italy under.......
  6. 6. King Victor-Emmanuel II Excommunicated by Pope for taking Papal States, Took Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Venice Had to stop Garibaldi from taking Rome Proclaimed King of Italy in 1861
  7. 7. Unification in 1859 1860 1861 Completed in 1870, with help from wars
  8. 8. Otto von Bismarck Prussian Junker Professional diplomat PM for Prussia Pragmatist who rammed through legislation over the objections of the majority of the Prussian Parliament
  9. 9. War of Schleswig, 1864 Danes tried to incorporate the region Bismarck got the German states and Austria to gang up in a popular cause
  10. 10. Austria, Unpopular Catholic Austria got Protestant Holstein as a prize, and Prussia was granted Schleswig Most German states now feared Austrian intervention, which made Prussia much more popular Napoleon III of France friendly to Prussian cause, along with Italy
  11. 11. Austro-Prussian War, 1866 The Seven Weeks War Quick victory for Prussia based on technological advances Austria now driven out of Northern Germany
  12. 12. Next stop, Paris! The only way to unite Catholic Southern Germany was to find a common enemy Napoleon III filled the vacuum by insulting Prussian royal family over Spanish inheritance Selective editing of Ems dispatch
  13. 13. Franco-Prussian War Utter defeat for France and Napoleon III, who was captured at Sedan and deposed by French government
  14. 14. Siege of Paris
  15. 15. German Empire proclaimed at Hall of Mirrors, January, 1871
  16. 16. Treaty of Frankfurt Alsace and Lorraine to Germany, Wilhelm I recognized as Emperor France humiliated, huge indemnity payment