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Biology Lecture Slide Week 1


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Biology Lecture Slide Week 1

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Biology Lecture Slide Week 1

  2. 2. Cell theoryProkaryotic and Eukaryotic cellsMicroscopic structure of plant andanimal cellsCells as basic units of living organismsare grouped into tissue and organsabout this chapter
  3. 3. kuman di seberang laut nampak,gajah di depan mata tak nampak
  4. 4. Definition of CellA cell is the smallest unit that iscapable of performing lifefunctions.
  5. 5. Examples of CellsAmoeba ProteusPlant StemRed Blood CellNerve CellBacteria
  6. 6. 3.1 Early DiscoveriesMid 1600s•Robert Hooke observed and describedcells in corkLate1600s•Antony van Leeuwenhoek observedsperm, microorganisms1820s•Robert Brown observed and namednucleus in plant cells
  7. 7. Developing Cell TheoryRudolf VirchowTheodorSchwannSchlieden “Plant growth, hestated in 1837, came aboutthrough the production of newcells, which, he speculated, werepropagated from the nuclei ofold cells,” i.e., all plants arecomposed of cells.Matthias Schleiden
  9. 9. Living things are made up of cellsThe cell is the basic unit ofstructureCells come only from preexistingcells
  10. 10. Cell•Smallest unit oflifeCan survive on itsown or haspotential to do soIs highlyorganized formetabolismSenses andresponds toenvironmentHas potential toreproduce
  11. 11. Two types of cells :Prokaryotic cellsNo true nucleus or organellese.g : Eubacteria and cyanobacteriaEukaryotic cellsNucleus and organelles that surrounded by amembranee.g: protozoa, algae, fungi, plants and animals
  12. 12. MicroscopesCreate detailed images of something that isotherwise too small to seeLight microscopesSimple or compoundElectron microscopesTransmission EM or Scanning EM
  13. 13. Slide 1ocular lensobjective lensstagecondenserilluminatorprismsource of illuminationFigure 4.6bPage 58Slide 1ocular lensobjective lensstagecondenserilluminatorprismsource of illuminationFigure 4.6bPage 58
  14. 14. Slide 9Click to viewanimation.Light microscopy animation.Animation
  15. 15. Slide 10viewing screenprojector lensintermediate lensobjective lensspecimencondenser lensaccelerated electron flow(top to bottom)Figure 4.7Page 58
  16. 16. Slide 12frog egg3 mmtypical plant cell10-100 µmmitochondrion1-5 µmchloroplast2-10 µmhuman redblood cell7-8 µmdiameterTrypanosoma(protozoan)25 µm longChlamydomonas(green alga)5-6 µm longpolio virus30 nmHIV(AIDS virus)100 nmT4 bacteriophage225 nm longtobacco mosaic virus300 nm longDNA molecule2 nm diameterUnaided VisionElectron Microscope (Down To 0.5 Nm)Light Microscope (Down To 200 Nm)Escherichia coli (bacterium)1-5 µm long1 centimeter (cm) = 1/100 meter, or 0.4 inch1 millimeter (mm) = 1/1,000 meter1 micrometer (µm) = 1/1,000,000 meter1 nanometer (nm) = 1/1,000,000,000 meter1 meter = 102 cm = 103 mm = 106 µm = 109 nm1 mm 100 µm 10 µm 1 µm 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm 0.5 nmFigure 4.8Page 59
  17. 17. Limitations of Light MicroscopyWavelengths of light are 400-750 nmIf a structure is less than one-half of awavelength long, it will not be visibleLight microscopes can resolve objects down toabout 200 nm in size
  18. 18. Electron MicroscopyUses streams of accelerated electronsrather than lightElectrons are focused by magnets ratherthan glass lensesCan resolve structures down to 0.5 nm
  20. 20. The prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure, lacking a nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell.
  21. 21. 1. Organisms2. Cell size3. Cell division4. Cell walls5. Organelles6. Genetic material7. Flagella8. Respiration9. Photosynthesis10. Nitrogen fixation* refer handoutprokaryotes vs eukaryotes
  23. 23. animal cells
  24. 24. plant cells
  27. 27. THE PLANT
  28. 28. PlantPlantGymnosperm- seed-bearing plantAngiosperm-flower-producing plant
  29. 29. TISSUESCells in plants and animals are groupedtogether in tissues.A tissue is a group of similar cells that areorganised to do a specific job
  30. 30. Angiosperm Body PlanVASCULAR TISSUESGROUND TISSUESSHOOT SYSTEMROOT SYSTEMEPIDERMIS•Ground tissuesystem•Vascular tissuesystem•Dermal tissuesystem
  31. 31. shoot tip(terminal bud)lateral (axillary) budflowerEPIDERMISleafseeds(inside fruit)witheredcotyledonroot hairsroot tiproot capnodenodeinternodeVASCULAR TISSUESGROUND TISSUESSHOOT SYSTEMROOT SYSTEMprimary rootlateral rootOverview ofthe plantbody
  32. 32. Ground tissueVascular tissue
  33. 33. Meristems• Regions where cell divisions produce plantgrowth• Consist of unspecialised, dividing cells.• Apical meristems– Lengthen stems and roots– Responsible for primary growth• Lateral meristems– Increase width of stems– Responsible for secondary growth
  34. 34. activity atmeristemsnew cellselongateand start todifferentiateinto primarytissuesactivity atmeristemsnew cellselongateand start todifferentiateinto primarytissuesFigure 29.4Page 507Root apical meristemShoot apical meristem
  35. 35. activity atmeristemsnew cellselongateand start todifferentiateinto primarytissuesROOT APICAL MERISTEMApical meristem near all root tips gives rise toprotoderm, ground meristem, and procambiumThese give rise to the root’s primary tissuesystems: epidermis, ground tissues, andvascular tissuesSHOOT APICAL MERISTEMSource of primary growth (lengthening)THREE PRIMARY MERISTEMSProtoderm epidermisGround meristem ground tissueProcambium primary vascular tissuesactivity atmeristemsnew cellselongateand start todifferentiateinto primarytissuesFigure 29.4Page 507Apical Meristems
  36. 36. vascular cambiumcork cambiumsecondaryphloemsecondaryxylemthickeningLATERAL MERISTEMSTwo lateral meristems in older stems and roots of woodyplants produce secondary growth (increases in diameter):Vascular cambium secondary vascular tissuesCork cambium periderm (replaces epidermis)Figure 29.4Page 507LATERAL MERISTEMS
  37. 37. Ground tissuesystem• -serves basicfunctions:•Food andwater storageVasculartissue system•-distributeswater andsolutesDermal tissuesystem•Covers andprotect plantsurfacesThree Plant Tissue system
  38. 38. GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM Predominantly cells in the leaf, stem, roots andstorage organse.g., potato tuber e.g., celery stem e.g., cherry seed
  39. 39. VASCULAR TISSUE SYSTEM The xylem andphloem made upthe plant vasculartissue system Food, water, andother substancesare transported andis continuousthroughout theplant.
  40. 40. DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM (OR EPIDERMIS) Single layer of tightlypacked cells covering andprotecting the young partsof plant E.g., the waxy cuticle thathelp plant retain water inleaves and stems
  41. 41. Tissue DifferentiationProtodermGround meristemProcambiumEpidermisGround tissuePrimary vascular tissue
  42. 42. Simple Tissues• Made up of only onetype of cellParenchymaCollenchymaSclerenchyma
  43. 43. Parenchyma: A Simple Tissue• Most of a plant’s soft primary growth• Pliable, thin walled, many sided cells• Cells remain alive at maturity and retaincapacity to divide• Mesophyll is a type that containschloroplastsParenchyma: A Simple Tissue• Most of a plant’s soft primary growth• Pliable, thin walled, many sided cells• Cells remain alive at maturity and retaincapacity to divide• Mesophyll is a type that containschloroplasts• Ground tissue for fruits, stems andleaves.
  44. 44. Collenchyma: A Simple Tissue• Specialized for support for primary tissues• Makes stems strong but pliable• Cells are elongated• Walls thickened with pectin• Alive at maturity
  45. 45. Scelerenchyma : A SimpleTissue• Supports mature plant parts• Protects many seeds• Thick, lignified walls• Dead at maturity• Two types:– Fibers: Long, tapered cells– Sclereids: Stubbier cells
  46. 46. Complex TissuesXylemPhloemEpidermisComposed of a mix of cell types
  47. 47. Xylem•Conducts water anddissolved minerals•Conducting cells aredead and hollow atmaturityvesselmembertracheids
  48. 48. Phloem:A Complex Vascular Tissue• Transports sugars• Main conducting cellsare sieve-tubemembers• Companion cells assistin the loading ofsugarssieve platesieve-tubemembercompanioncell
  49. 49. Epidermis:A Complex Plant Tissue• Covers and protects plant surfaces• Secretes a waxy, waterproofcuticle• In plants with secondary growth,periderm replaces epidermis
  50. 50. Monocots and Dicots:Parallel veinsNetlike veins3 pores1 pore4 or 5 floralparts3 floralparts1 cotyledon 2 cotyledonsVascularbundlesdispersedVascularbundlesin ringMonocots and Dicots:Parallel veinsNetlike veins3 pores1 pore4 or 5 floralparts3 floralparts1 cotyledon 2 cotyledonsVascularbundlesdispersedVascularbundlesin ring
  51. 51. Shoot Developmentimmature leafground meristemprimary phloemprimary xylempithprocambiumcortexprocambiumprotodermshoot apical meristemprocambiumepidermisFigure 29.11Page 510
  52. 52. Internal Structure of a Dicot StemOutermost layer is epidermisCortex lies beneath epidermisRing of vascular bundles separates the cortexfrom the pithThe pith lies in the center of the stem
  53. 53. Internal Structureof a MonocotStem• The vascular bundlesare distributedthroughout the groundtissue• No division of groundtissue into cortex andpith
  54. 54. Ring of vascular bundlesdividing ground tissueinto cortex and pith Vascular bundles distributedthroughout ground tissueDicot MonocotInternal structure of Stems
  55. 55. Common Leaf FormspetiolebladeaxillarybudnodebladesheathnodeDICOT MONOCOT
  56. 56. Adapted for PhotosynthesisLeaves are usually thin High surface area-to-volume ratio Promotes diffusion of carbon dioxide in, oxygenoutLeaves are arranged to capture sunlight Are held perpendicular to rays of sun Arranged so they don’t shade one another
  58. 58. Root SystemsTaproot system ofa California poppyFibrous root systemof a grass plantFigure 29.17Page 514
  59. 59. VASCULAR CYLINDER:endodermispericyclexylemphloemcortexepidermisfully grownroot hairVessels have matured; roothairs and vascular cylinderabout to formCells elongate; sieve tubes formand mature; vessel membersstart to formMost cells have stoppeddividingCells are dividing rapidly at apicaland primary meristemsquiescent centerroot capRoot StructureRoot cap coverstipApical meristemproduces the capCell divisions atthe apicalmeristem causethe root tolengthenFarther up, cellsdifferentiate andmature
  60. 60. AnimalCell specializationANIMAL TISSUES AND ORGAN SYSTEMS
  61. 61. Take a rest 
  62. 62. Animal tissue
  63. 63. HOMEOSTASISStable operating conditions in the internalenvironmentBrought about by coordinated activities ofcells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
  64. 64. TISSUE A group of cells and intercellular substances thatinteract in one or more tasks Four typesEpithelial tissueMuscle tissueConnective tissueNervous tissue
  65. 65. ORGANS Group of tissues organized to perform a task Heart is an organ that pumps blood through body Heart consists of muscle tissue, nervoustissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue
  66. 66. ORGAN SYSTEMS Organs interact physically, chemically, or both toperform a common task Circulatory system includes the heart, the arteries, andother vessels that transport blood through the body
  67. 67. EPITHELIAL TISSUELines the body’ssurface, cavities, ducts, and tubesOne free surface faces a body fluid orthe environmentsimplesquamousepitheliumbasementmembraneconnective tissue
  68. 68. SIMPLE EPITHELIUMConsists of a single layer of cellsLines body ducts, cavities, and tubesCell shapes:Squamous Cuboidal Columnar
  69. 69. STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM Two or more layers thick Functions in protection, as in skin Cells in the layers may besquamous, columnar, or cuboidal
  70. 70. Glands Secretory organsderived from epithelium Exocrine glands haveducts or tubes(secrete mucus, saliva,earwax) Endocrine glands areductless Product-hormoneSection through the glandular epithelium of a frog.pore that opens at skin surfacemucousglandpoisonglandpigmentedgland
  71. 71. CELL JUNCTIONSa type of structure that exists within the tissue of amulticellular organism. They consist of protein complexesand provide contact between neighbouring cells,between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or Tight junctions prevent leaks Gap junctions connect abuttingcytoplasms Adhering junctions cement cellstogetherTightJunctionAdheringJunctionGapJunction
  72. 72. CONNECTIVE TISSUEMost abundant tissue in the bodyCells are scattered in an extracellular matrixMatrix is collagen and/or elastin fibers in apolysaccharide ground substance
  73. 73. collagenous fiberfibroblastelastic fiberLoose connectivetissuecartilage cell(chondrocyte)CartilagecollagenousfiberscollagenousfibersfibroblastDense, regularconnective tissueground substancewith collagen fiberscell bulging withfat dropletnucleusAdipose tissue (fat storage) Dense, irregularconnective tissuecompactbone tissueblood vesselbone cell(osteocyte)BoneSOFT CONNECTIVE TISSUESSPECIALIZED CONNECTIVE TISSUES
  74. 74. location ofcartilage onknobby end of along bonebone tissueFigure 33.6Page 571
  75. 75. Blood Classified as a connective tissue because blood cells arisein bone Serves as the body’s transport medium Red cells, white cells, and platelets are dispersed in afluid medium called plasma
  76. 76. MUSCLE TISSUE Composed of cells that contract when stimulated Helps move the body and specific body parts Types of tissue- Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
  77. 77. SKELETAL MUSCLE Located in muscles that attach to bones Long, cylindrical cells are striated Cells are bundled closely together inparallel arraysFigure 33.8,page 572
  78. 78. SMOOTH MUSCLE In walls of many internal organs(stomach, lungs etc) and some bloodvessels Cells are not striped and taper at theendsFigure 33.8,page 572
  79. 79. one muscle cellone bundle of musclecells in its own sheathouter connective tissue sheatharound one muscleone whole muscle,a bicepsFigure 33.9Page 572
  80. 80. CARDIAC MUSCLE Present only in the heart Cells are striated and branching Ends of cells are joined bycommunication junctionsnucleus
  81. 81. NERVOUS TISSUE Detects stimuli, integrates information, and relayscommands for response Consists of excitable neurons and supporting neuroglialcells
  82. 82. NEUROGLIA Constitute more than half of the nervous tissue Protect and support the neurons, bothstructurally and metabolically
  83. 83. Major Organ SystemsIntegumentaryMuscularSkeletalNervousEndocrine•Lymphatic•Respiratory•Urinary•Circulatory•Reproductive
  84. 84. IntegumentarySystemMuscularSystemSkeletalSystemNervousSystemEndocrineSystemCirculatorySystemFig. 33.11(1)Page 574
  85. 85. LymphaticSystemRespiratorySystemDigestiveSystemUrinarySystemReproductionSystemFig. 33.11(2)Page 575
  86. 86. Organ systems carry out the major body functions of mostanimals.Each organ system consists of several organs and has specificfunctions.
  87. 87. Thank you for your attention ^_^perbezaan antara mereka yangberjaya dengan yang lain bukanlahkerana kekurangan kekuatan atauilmu,tetapi lebih kepada kekurangankesungguhan dan kemahuan
  88. 88. perbezaan antara mereka yangberjaya dengan yang lainbukanlah kerana kekurangankekuatan atau ilmu,tetapi lebih kepada kekurangankesungguhan dan kemahuan