BASIC MAKE UP OF A SENTENCE A COMPLETE SENTENCE MUST HAVE: 1. SUBJECT 2. VERB 3. A COMPLETE IDEA
Fragment? Means incomplete sentence! Why?The sentence DID NOT fulfill the 3 REQUIRED criteria of a sentence!
1. MISSING SUBJECT. Ex: Just can’t wait to be married! WHO is that desperate person? Identity must be revealed! If concealed, it is a FRAGMENT! MUST ADD SUBJECT. 2. MISSING VERB be or have Ex: She angered by those thoughtless remarks! This sentence lacks a be VERB
3. INCOMPLETE IDEA BEWARE of DEPENDENT CLAUSES that begin with SUBORDINATOR or CONJUNCTIONS, such as :after, although, as, because, before, even though, if, since, that, so that, when, while, who… Ex: Because he loves giving her beautiful flowers, especially tulips, roses, and lilies. The listener will be right there waiting for the continuation of the story! INCOMPLETE!!!
4. Be careful with added-detail fragments. Added detail fragments lack a subject and a verb. They begin with these words: Also, especially, except, for example, like, such as, including. Before a competition, I have to eat starchy food. Such as bread and spaghetti. I get instant energy from such food. ‘Such as bread and spaghetti’ is NOT a complete sentence. EVERY sentence must have subject, verb and complete idea. How to correct? ADD it to the preceding or the next sentence, whichever makes sense.
5. –ing and To fragments. It is a problem when gerunds or to-infinitive starts a sentence. She is a very responsible daughter. Trying hard to make ends meet. She takes up two part time work after class. Trying to make ends meet is NOT complete. How to change? Attach the fragment to the preceding sentence or the next sentence, whichever makes sense. Or add a subject and change the –ing verb to the correct form of verb. Ex: She tries hard to make ends meet.
RUN-ONS Happens when there are MORE than ONE independent clauses in a sentence. 2 types of RUN-ONS: 1. FUSED- 2 or more independent clauses combined without proper punctuation marks between them. Ex: Mummy is upset we must be careful . 2 independent clauses are combined without any punctuation marks.
Run-ons 2. Comma splice. Happens when the punctuation mark used, the COMMA, is inadequate to combine 2 independent clauses. Ex: Mummy is upset, we must be careful.
RUN-ONS 3 main ways to handle RUN-ONS 1. use a stronger comma: the semi-colon Ex: Mummy is upset; we must be careful. 2. maintain the comma but insert coordinating conjunction : The FANBOYS Ex: Mummy is upset, so we must be careful. 3. Insert a full stop with or without a transitional word or phrase (ex: likewise, thus, therefore, etc) Ex: Mummy is upset. (Hence), we must be careful.
Parallelism? It means to put all items in a series in the same grammatical form: Singular with singulars, Plurals with plurals, nouns with nouns, active with actives and passives with passives and etc.
1. In sentences with several items in the passivevoice, the auxiliary may be repeated each time orused before the first item only.Ex: The prisoner was arrested, was tried and wasfound guilty.The prisoner was arrested, tried, and found guilty.2. The same principle applies to the use of articles,preposition or even the to-infinitive in a series.The key is to be consistent.Ex: James keeps his money everywhere, in thedrawers, in the bottles, and in the shoes!
3.Mixing gerunds and infinitives in the same series is a common parallelism error. For example: My summer hobbies are hiking, boating and to go mountain climbing. It should be: My summer hobbies are hiking, boating and mountain climbing.
Descriptive words must be balanced. For example: The students are required to complete their assignment within a short period of time, and that restricts their ability to express their ideas imaginatively, creatively, and innovatively
Correlative conjunctions like neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also… must also pair parallel ideas. For example: She should either send her children to that tuition centre or teach them herself.
The items in a list must be kept in the same form. For example: A student ought to be punctual, obedient, and respect their elders. It should be respectful because the previous words are adjectives.