Ae2da alvarado_cos4


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Ae2da alvarado_cos4

  1. 1. "Computer networks" redirects here. For the periodical, see Computer Networks (journal). Operating systems Common features • Process management • Interrupts • Memory management • Virtual file system • Device drivers • Networking • Security • Graphical user interfaces 1.What is a Computer Network? And a Network? And its type? Computer Network -often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of computers and devices connected by communications channels that facilitates communications among users and allows users to share resources with other users. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics. This article provides a general overview of types and categories and also presents the basic components of a network. What is a Network? A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone
  2. 2. lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. The two basic types of networks include: • Local Area Network (LAN) • Wide Area Network (WAN) Local Area Network A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that is confined to a relatively small area. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as a writing lab, school, or building. Rarely are LAN computers more than a mile apart. In a typical LAN configuration, one computer is designated as the file server. It stores all of the software that controls the network, as well as the software that can be shared by the computers attached to the network. Computers connected to the file server are called workstations. The workstations can be less powerful than the file server, and they may have additional software on their hard drives. On many LANs, cables are used to connect the network interface cards in each computer; other LANs may be wireless. See the Topology, Cabling, and Hardware sections of this tutorial for more information on the configuration of a LAN. Wide Area Network Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect larger geographic areas, such as Florida, the United States, or the world. Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of network. Using a WAN, schools in Florida can communicate with places like Tokyo in a matter of minutes, without paying enormous phone bills. A WAN is complicated. It uses multiplexers to connect local and metropolitan networks to global communications networks like the Internet. To users, however, a WAN will not appear to be much different than a LAN. Advantages of Installing a School Network  Speed. Networks provide a very rapid method for sharing and transferring files. Without a network, files are shared by copying them to memory cards or discs, then carrying or sending the discs from one computer to another. This method of transferring files (referred to as sneaker-net) can be very time-consuming.  Cost. Networkable versions of many popular software programs are available at considerable savings when compared to buying individually licensed copies.  Security. Files and programs on a network can be designated as "copy inhibit," so that you do not have to worry about illegal copying of programs. Also, passwords can be established for specific directories to restrict access to authorized users.  Centralized Software Management. One of the greatest benefits of installing a network at a school is the fact that all of the software can be loaded on one computer (the file server). This eliminates that need to spend time and energy installing updates and tracking files on independent computers throughout the building.
  3. 3.  Resource Sharing. Sharing resources is another advantage of school networks. Most schools cannot afford enough laser printers, fax machines, modems, scanners, and CD players for each computer. However, if these or similar peripherals are added to a network, they can be shared by many users.  Electronic Mail. The presence of a network provides the hardware necessary to install an e-mail system. E-mail aids in personal and professional communication for all school personnel, and it facilitates the dissemination of general information to the entire school staff. Electronic mail on a LAN can enable students to communicate with teachers and peers at their own school. If the LAN is connected to the Internet, students can communicate with others throughout the world.  Flexible Access. School networks allow students to access their files from computers throughout the school. Students can begin an assignment in their classroom, save part of it on a public access area of the network, then go to the media center after school to finish their work. Students can also work cooperatively through the network.  Workgroup Computing. Collaborative software allows many users to work on a document or project concurrently. For example, educators located at various schools within a county could simultaneously contribute their ideas about new curriculum standards to the same document, spreadsheets, or website. Disadvantages of Installing a School Network  Expensive to Install. Although a network will generally save money over time, the initial costs of installation can be prohibitive. Cables, network cards, routers, and software are expensive, and the installation may require the services of a technician.  Requires Administrative Time. Proper maintenance of a network requires considerable time and expertise. Many schools have installed a network, only to find that they did not budget for the necessary administrative support.  File Server May Fail. Although a file server is no more susceptible to failure than any other computer, when the files server "goes down," the entire network may come to a halt. When this happens, the entire school may lose access to necessary programs and files.  Cables May Break. The Topology chapter presents information about the various configurations of cables. Some of the configurations are designed to minimize the inconvenience of a broken cable; with other configurations, one broken cable can stop the entire network.  Must Monitor Security Issues. Wireless networks are becoming increasingly common; however, security can be an issue with wireless networks. 2.How to connect computers to a network? Connection method Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network, such as optical fiber, Ethernet, Wireless LAN, HomePNA, Power line communication or Ethernet uses physical wiring to connect devices. Frequently deployed devices include hubs, switches, bridges and/or routers. Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect
  4. 4. devices without wiring. These devices use radio waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium. ITU-T technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network. Wired technologies • Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication. Twisted-pair wires are ordinary telephone wires which consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs and are used for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 100 million bits per second. • Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other worksites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire wrapped with insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which are surrounded by a conductive layer. The layers of insulation help minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed range from 200 million to more than 500 million bits per second. • Optical fiber cable consists of one or more filaments of glass fiber wrapped in protective layers. It transmits light which can travel over extended distances without signal loss. Fiber-optic cables are not affected by electromagnetic radiation. Transmission speed may reach trillions of bits per second. The transmission speed of fiber optics is hundreds of times faster than for coaxial cables and thousands of times faster than for twisted-pair wire. • Wireless technologies • Terrestrial Microwave – Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based transmitter and receiver. The equipment look similar to satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Path between relay stations spaced approx. 30 miles apart. Microwave antennas are usually placed on top of buildings, towers, hills, and mountain peaks. • Communications Satellites – The satellites use microwave radio as their telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically 22,000 miles (for geosynchronous satellites) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals. • Cellular and PCS Systems – Use several radio communications technologies. The systems are divided to different geographic area. Each area has low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. • Wireless LANs – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. An example of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology is IEEE 802.11b. • Bluetooth – A short range wireless technology. Operate at approx. 1Mbps with
  5. 5. range from 10 to 100 meters. Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for data exchange over short distances What are the Telecommunications media? the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most Telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. However, following the recent liberalisation of the sector, a few private telecommunications companies have emerged including MTN, Cablenet, TelePassport, OTEnet Telecom, Omega Telecomand PrimeTel. Examples: Wire - Cheap, simple, compatable with old equipment, must be amplified for long distances • Optical - Fast, long distance, high bandwidth, can carry multiple data streams on one cable, expensive, can break easily • Wireless RF - Simple, no cables, expandable, no line-of-sight required, long distance • Wireless IR - Cheap, line-of-sight required That's all folks! I honestly don't think there are any other network medias. Unless you split wire into coax (thick copper), UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair), STP (Shielded Twisted Pair), etc. But I may be wrong.