Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Localization - It's Big in Japan 20070408


Published on

Case study from a 2006 Localization project that successfully brought an internal corporate HR site from US to Japan, and the UX process followed to do so.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Localization - It's Big in Japan 20070408

  1. 1. Localization. It’s Big in Japan.
  2. 2. Agenda• Why Localization?• GILT: Globalization, I18n, L10n, Translation• Localization from a User-centered Design Point of View• Project Overview & Research Approach• Cultural Research• Japanese• Our Research Approach• The Research Sessions• Results• Logistics• Localization Tips• References• Q & A
  3. 3. Why Localization? – Even translation is difficult…• Kentucky Fried Chicken’s tagline“Finger lickin’ good” was mistranslated as“Eat your fingers off” in Chinese• General Motors ran into trouble trying to sellthe Chevy Nova in Latin America.“No va” means “no go” in Spanish.• The Budweiser slogan “King of Beers” wastranslated into Spanish as “Queen of Beers.”• Ford tried to sell the Pinto in Brazil. Pinto isapparently slang for “tiny male genitals.”• Procter & Gamble marketed its Cheer laundrydetergent in Japan under the familiar “all-temperature” slogan, yet the Japanese washclothes in cold water, almost exclusively.• An American firm in India used a symbol ofan owl in its marketing efforts only to find outthat in India, an owl signifies bad luck.Photo: Jon Ashley 2006 with Treo 700p in Kyoto Japan
  4. 4. Why Localization?• Simple translation is not enough (Whose Spanish? MexicanSpanish, Central American Spanish, Spanish in Spain?).What about idioms? “Break a leg!” “Let’s get down and dirty…”• Localization is tied to locale. Not just the language, but thegeography and – more important – the culture.• Size of the non-English-speaking audience
  5. 5. GILT: Globalization, I18n, L10n, TranslationThe words “internationalization,” “localization” and “globalization”are often used interchangeably.However, they actually mean very different things, both for businessand in an interactive-specific context:• Globalization: Not simply having a world-wide presence, butrather the incorporation of a global perspective into all aspects of acompany (&/or communications, systems, etc.).• Internationalization (I18n): Creating culturally neutral content,materials, and products (as a first step in a localization process).– No idioms, no metaphors; character encoding, currency andaddress mechanisms, etc.• Localization (L10n): The process of adapting, designing ormanufacturing a product so that it has the look and feel of a locally-manufactured piece of goods.– Requires an understanding of local users and local culture– Content, linguistic and technical issues must be covered• Translation: Changing text from one natural language intoanother. and others, see reference page
  6. 6. GILT: Globalization, I18n, L10n, Translation -Visualized
  7. 7. Translation & Layout
  8. 8. Translation Vendors• across• Advanced International Translations• Beetext• Idiom• Lido-Lang• Lingotek• Lionbridge (from the fact that “L10n” looks like “Lion”)• The Language Technology Centre• Plunet• ]project-open[• Sajan• SDL• thebigword•• Transware
  9. 9. Brand can work across cultures & languages
  10. 10. Usability and affordance can transcend language aswell
  11. 11. Localization from a User-centeredDesign Point of View
  12. 12. Localization from a User-centered Design Point ofView• Good body of research exists on cultural research• Books:– Beyond Borders: Web Globalization Strategies– Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind(Geert Hofstede)• ACM papers and journal articles (Use the ACM Digital Library)• Aaron Marcus and Associates articles (• Information about other cultures is broadly available(books, papers, current periodicals, online resources, etc.)– Beware of older resources… cultures change!
  13. 13. Cultural Dimensions (Geert Hofstede – Cultures andOrganizations: Software of the Mind)• Power DistancePower distance refers to the extent to which less powerful members expect and accept unequalpower distribution within a culture.• Individualism vs. CollectivismIndividualism in cultures implies loose ties; everyone is expected to look after one’s self orimmediate family but no one else. Collectivism implies that people are integrated from birth intostrong, cohesive groups that protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.• Masculinity vs. FemininityMasculinity and femininity refer to gender roles, not physical characteristics. The more "masculine"the culture, the more the two genders are differentiated.• Uncertainty AvoidancePeople vary in the extent that they feel anxiety about uncertain or unknown matters, as opposed tothe more universal feeling of fear caused by known or understood threats. Cultures vary in theiravoidance of uncertainty, creating different rituals and having different values regarding formality,punctuality, legal-religious-social requirements, and tolerance for ambiguity.• Long- vs. Short-Term Time OrientationIn the early 1980s, shortly after Hofstede first formulated his cultural dimensions, work by MichaelBond convinced him that a fifth dimension needed to be defined. Long-Term Orientation seemed toplay an important role in Asian countries that had been influenced by Confucian philosophy overmany thousands of years. Hofstede and Bond found such countries shared these beliefs:– A stable society requires unequal relations.– The family is the prototype of all social organizations; consequently, older people (parents)have more authority than younger people (and men more than women).– Virtuous behavior to others means not treating them as one would not like to be treated.– Virtuous behavior in work means trying to acquire skills and education, working hard, andCultural Dimensions and Global Web Design: What? So What? Now What? – Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc.
  14. 14. Cultural Dimensions – Japan, USA, Others© 2006 Refinery Inc.
  15. 15. UI Aspects Affected by LocalizationUser interfaces (whether for the Web or for other technologies) can bethought of as having these components:• Metaphors: Fundamental concepts communicated via words, images,sounds, and tactile experiences. The pace of metaphor invention andneologism will increase because of rapid development, deployment, anddistribution through the Web.• Mental models: Structures or organizations of data, functions, tasks,roles, and people in groups at work or play. Content, function, media, tool,role, and task hierarchies are examples.• Navigation: Movement through the mental models, i.e., through contentand tools. Examples include dialogue techniques such as menus, dialogueboxes, control panels, icons, tool palettes, and windows.• Interaction: Input/output techniques, including feedback. Examplesinclude the choices of keyboards, mice, pens, or microphones for input andthe use of drag-and-drop selection/action sequences.• Appearance: Visual, auditory, and tactile characteristics. Examplesinclude choices of colors, fonts, verbal style (e.g., verbose/terse orinformal/formal), sound cues, and vibration modes.Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design Smith, Michael J., and Salvendy, Gavriel, Eds., Proceedings, Vol. 2, Human-Computer InterfaceInternat. (HCII) Conf., 5-10 Aug., 2001, New Orleans, LA, USA, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ USA, pp. 502-505.
  16. 16. Project Overview & ResearchApproach
  17. 17. Project Brief• Fall/Winter of 2006• Intranet HR site (“CareerQuest”) created 2 years prior as part of anorganizational shift• Acquired Japanese subsidiary of major pharmaceutical company• Client accepted our recommendation – that “localization” rather thansimple “translation” was necessary for success (adoption an internalprocess)
  18. 18. Research Approach• Several weeks of prep– Localization bootstrap– Japanese culture– Web site content (existing site and potential Japanese content)• Straight translation of site for prototype– We created a locally-running prototype in English from thedynamic server-driven site– Translation partner delivered translated site back to us in just afew days• Test Plan: Recruiting, Test Script– Title and Tenure of each participant (all vCards)– Questions, Labeling Activities & Prototype Tasks
  19. 19. Team Composition• Account Strategist (generally not involved in userresearch sessions)• Content Strategist (key to sessions and project overall)• Creative Director (aesthetic research)• User Experience Architect (session facilitator)• Project Manager (logistics coordinator)• Interpreter (truly an extension of the project team)
  20. 20. Cultural Research• Books– Meet the Japanese– How to Do Business with the Japanese• Online Resources• Cultural norms to observe– Japanese-style, dual-language/double-sided business cards– “Meishi” ritual/practice (business cardceremony)– Bowing (& only light hand shaking)– Slip-on shoes (on and off forrestaurants, etc.)– Charcoal gray suit, “typical” is lessdistracting– Body language and hand gesture (tooAmerican is not good)• Corporation-specific culture
  21. 21. Cultural Research
  22. 22. Language Tools – Rikaichan (Firefox Plug-in)
  23. 23. Language Tools – Google Translate (and others)
  24. 24. A very short Japanese lesson• Kanji – literally means“Chinese characters”• Hiragana – the syllabary thatevolved from Kanji around the6thcentury• Katakana – more angularsyllabary developed from Kanji• Romaji – the Roman orWestern alphabetJapanese has 3 main writing systems: Kanji, Hiragana, and Katakana.Roman letters (a, b, c ...), Arabic numerals (0, 1, 2 ...) and variouspunctuation marks ( 。 , !, ?, 「 , 」 ...) are also commonly found inJapanese
  25. 25. A very short Japanese lessonAll of these different writing systems can be found in thesame sentence. For example:– UNIX での日本語文字コードを扱うために使用されている従来の EUC は次のようなものでした。– “The traditional EUC encoding used to handle Japanesecharacter codes on Unix looked like this.”
  26. 26. Japanese Typography• Right to left flow is very common (many books & magazines)• Left-to-right text is common now (especially on the Web)• Vertical text is still seen, but it has an “older” feel• Like Latin-based text, “serif” type feels older than “san-serif” type• Kerning is an issue, as the ideograms are
  27. 27. Japanese Typography• Typefaces conveytone and style, just asin English• The density of manyKanji charactersnecessitates certainstylistic choices• Bold can makebusy/densecharacters hard toread – and have afeeling of “ads” tryingto sell somethinganyway
  28. 28. “Yes, you can say that.”
  29. 29. “Yes, you can say that.”
  30. 30. “Which is to be master?”• Career• Skill• Promotion• Competency• Job Families• Resources• Tools• Career Ladder• Dialog• Employee Development Process• Time in Grade
  31. 31. Research Sessions
  32. 32. Session Approach• 1 ½ hour sessions with 30 minute breaks• Participant “homework”• Using an Interpreter– Each session - even if the participants believe their English is‘good enough’ (it’s probably not;)– Advance meeting to discuss purpose & script (2 hours)– Personnel consistency (same interpreter, as possible)– A few sentences at a time– Physical arrangement (diagram)• Listening for key words and phrases• Morae recorded
  33. 33. Session Outline• Meishi Exchange – inconsistently observed• Introduction – Background/Relationship(long view cultural dimension)• Corporate Cultural Change Discussion• Labeling Exercise (day-2 change in layout)• Design Aesthetics– Responses to “homework”– Reference websites reviewed– Stock photography review/critiqued for authenticity– Color exploration (informed by existing ‘global norm’ research)• Usability Testing with Functional Prototype– Key Tasks– Any inherited design decisions that cause issues?• Listening for use of key phrases to aid in localizing concepts
  34. 34. Session LogisticsMorae can be run across anad-hoc network• Set up a manual IP address• Point Morae components at thecorrect (numeric) IP• Materials printable on metric sizes(A4, etc.)© 2007 Refinery Inc.
  35. 35. Labeling Exercise© 2006 Refinery Inc.
  36. 36. Results
  37. 37. Katakana Words• Career キャリア• Skill スキル• Competency コンピテンシー• Career Ladder キャリア・ラダー
  38. 38. What about the title of the site?• CareerQuest• 職務探索• きゃりあくえすと• キャリアクエスト
  39. 39. Kanji Terms• Promotion (Process) 昇進・昇格(プロセス)• Dialog 面談• Employee DevelopmentProcess (EDP) 社員能力開発プロセス• Time in Grade 年功(制度)
  40. 40. Problem Terms• Resources• Tools• Job Families
  41. 41. Cultural Issues• In Group/Out Group• Top-Down Approval• Prior Approval (nemawashi)• Non-Confrontation• Lower level of skepticism
  42. 42. Logistics
  43. 43. Logistics• Traveling in a foreign country– Maps, Travel– Currency (and cash or credit biases)– Power supplies (plane & in-country standards)– US Embassy location– American Chamber of Commerce location– Medical facility locations, language proficiency and coverage– Language/phrase assistance• Treo 700p plug– Maps (subway, city, etc.)– Travel guides (local information, restaurants, site seeing)– Photos (building guides to look for)– Language program (not quite a Babelfish in your ear, but…)– Camera/Camcorder
  44. 44. Logistics – a Smart Phone Plug
  45. 45. Localization Tips
  46. 46. Localization Tips• Research can work through an interpreter– Meet prior to first research session to discuss goals, approach;agree on key terms, etc.– If possible, have the same interpreter for all sessions– Allow for extra time to compensate• You will need supporting team members (On site & back at home)• Don’t let logistics overwhelm you– Compensate for jet-lag (in-country lead time)– Fully-prep for timing, location, etc.– Client extranet, etc. is invaluable– Plan for regional differences (A4 paper size, electricity, etc.)• Be prepared to evolve the research and session materialsthroughout the course of the research• You will have to watch your translation partner carefully, double-and triple-checking work against the “translation dictionary”
  47. 47. Q & A
  48. 48. Hotel Life