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Jasjit Singh Jolly
Existing cable schemes
Component cables: Analog interface. Three
cables for video + 2 for audio.
Composite cables: Analog interface. One cable for
video + 2 for audio.
DVI: Digital Visual interface. Uses single cable for
video transmission but lacks audio channel.
HDMI stands for High Definition
It is an uncompressed, all-digital
signal audio/video interface with
10 Gbps of available bandwidth.
It contains 19 wires wrapped in a
single cable. Uses HDCP
technology for protection.
This new connection standard
was developed by Hitachi,
Matsushita, Phillips, Silicon
Image, Sony, Thomson (RCA) and
What is HDMI ?
• HDMI provides an interface between any A/V source, such as a set-
top box, DVD player, blu ray player, ps3, xbox etc or A/V receiver
and an audio and/or video monitor, such as a digital television
(DTV), over a single cable.
• HDMI supports standard, enhanced, or high-definition video, plus
multi-channel digital audio on a single cable.
• Transmits all ATSC HDTV standards and supports 8-channel, 192kHz,
uncompressed digital audio, all currently-available compressed
formats & lossless digital audio formats with bandwidth to spare to
accommodate future enhancements and requirements.
Audio: LPCM, Dolby Digital, DTS, DVD-Audio, Super Audio
CD, Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD High Resolution
Audio, DTS-HD Master Audio, MPCM, DSD, DST.
Video: 480i, 480p, 576i, 576p, 720p, 1080i, 1080p,1440p,
1600p, 2160p, etc.
Typical Component Set-Up
Typical HDMI Set-Up
Pins 1 through 9 carry the three TMDS (transition minimized differential
signaling) data channels, three pins per channel. Each channel has three
separate lines for + values, - values, and a ground or data shield.
Pins 10 through 12 carry data for the TMDS clock channel, which helps
keep the signals in synchronization. As with the TMDS data channels, there
are separate lines for + values, - values, and a data shield.
Pin 13 is carries the CEC (consumer electronic control) channel.
Pin 14 is reserved for future use.
Pins 15 and 16 are dedicated to the DDC (Display Data Channel), used for
communicating EDID (Extended Display Information data) information
Pin 17 is a data shield for the CEC and DDC channels.
Pin 18 carries a low-voltage (+5V) power supply.
Pin 19 is the Hot Plug Detect, dedicated to monitoring power up/down
and plug/unplug events.
Transition minimized differential signaling (TMDS) is a way of encoding digital
information so that it doesn't degrade as much as it travels down a cable.
Digital signals are in binary form, meaning 1s and 0s. Electrically, a 1 is electricity
flowing and a 0 is no electricity flowing. Digital binary signals generally travel
better than analog signals, but they can degrade. It happens when the sharp drop
in voltage from 1 to 0 becomes more of a slope.
TMDS protects against this in two ways:
- It reduces the number of times the signal switches between 1 and 0.
- It carries the signal twice; once as the signal and the second time as the inverse
of the signal. Since the receiver measures the difference between the signal and
its inverse, it has a bigger gap to measure.
HDMI Signal Configuration
Version 1.0: Uncompressed audio and video over
a single cable.
Version 1.1: DVD audio output.
Version 1.2: Super Audio CD output.
Version 1.3: Bandwidth doubled to 10.2 Gbps.
Version 1.4: Addition of a 100 Mb/s HDMI Ethernet
Support for 3D over HDMI.
A Micro HDMI Connector.
Current scenario for internet connection
Using HDMI Ethernet. It incorporates a dedicated data channel into the HDMI
link, enabling high-speed, bi-directional networking at up to 100 Mb/sec.
What is HDCP?
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection encrypts
data over HDMI.
HDCP helps bring high-definition digital content to
consumers by providing copy protection over HDMI
How it works
Distance Limitations: HDMI cable is not suggested for long cable runs,
due to twisted pairs of copper conductors that are small gauge.
Switching Delays: Sometimes, blank screens can be caused due to
authentication delays. There can also be screen flashing errors.
Costly: HDMI cables are more expensive (per meter) than their analog
HDCP Criticism: Many HDTV do not have HDCP.
In future if keys are revoked signals will be
Typical HDMI uses