Overview• History of special education• Special needs• Assistive technology• Devices• 2 studies on iPods and iPads.
Historical Overview of Special Education • History of special education in the United States started after World War II • Before, children with special needs were denied access to public education • In the United States, in 1970, schools educated only 1 children out of 5 with disabilities
Historical Overview of Special Education• Nowadays, the IDEA (“Individuals with Disabilities Education Act”) provides special education opportunities to more than 6.5 million children and 200 000 infants and families each year.
What are special needs?• Students that are suffering from:- Physical disabilities- Medical conditions- Intellectual difficulties- Emotional problemsDisability: Mental or physical condition that willlimit a student’s activities or senses. Requires special education, environment,support, and services
Students with special needs who do not attendspecial education classes struggle more. They donot have the learning environment they need tosucceed.
This graph shows the most frequent conditionsthat will require special education.
Types of Special Needs• Attention deficit disorder• Autism• Learning disabilities• Sensory disabilities
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder• Inability to focus on one task inattentiveness• Hyperactive + impulsive behavior• Can be easily distracted• Fails to finish schoolwork and chores
Autism Spectrum Disorder• Affect child’s ability to communicate and interact with others• Lack of interest in other people• Poor eye contact• Repetitive movements• Strong need for routine
Learning disabilities• Refer to many disorders-acquisition-organization-retention-understanding and/or use of verbal and/or non verbalinformation• Impairments in one or more processes related to:-perceiving-thinking-remembering-learning
Learning disabilities• May range in severity which will interfere with:-oral language-reading-written language-mathematics-difficulties with organizational skills-difficulties with social perception-difficulties with social interaction
Sensory disabilities• Affect how people gather information• Can be hearing loss and/or visual impairmentHearing loss: Can have difficulties withcommunication, may talk too loudly, may touchsomeone to get his/her attention.Visual impairment: Can be uncomfortable andanxious, visual problems really depend on theseverity
Assistive Technology• What is assistive technology?The National Center on Accessible Information Technology in Education atthe University of Washington defines it as “technology used by individualswith disabilities in order to perform functions that might otherwise be difficultor impossible…”• Assistive technology helps students who struggle because they assist students with disabilities.
Examples of Assistive Technology• Voice output device or Speech generating deviceImprove communication effectivenessImprove user’s spelling skillsIt helps the individual clearly communicateIt helps developing word recognition
Examples of Assistive Technology• Whiteboard’s screenSpecial needs students can manipulate thewhiteboard with more ease than a normalcomputer with a mouse.Large fonts and bright colors: keep students’attention + help students with visualimpairments.Much more interactive than a simple board
Examples of Assistive Technology• Speech recognition softwaresignificant improvements in word recognition,spelling, and reading comprehensionRecommended device:-Dragon NaturallySpeaking (dictation, text-to-speech, command input), you basically use yourvoice to create and edit your documents etc.
Why is assistive technology so useful? Examples1. A student who has difficulties with his speech canuse technology to communicate.2.Text and graphics can be enlarged to be seen bypeople with visual impairments (text can also be readelectronically for people who are blind).3.Students with learning with disabilities can keep upwith the work in class by using spellchecking andgrammatical tools4.Technology is very efficient for teachers whenplanning lesson plans.
Why is assistive so useful?• The link below is a video that shows how video games help students with autism.http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/story/2012-05-31/video-games-autism-students/55319452/1
iOS application in special needs classrooms (Study)-Analysis of iPod Touch and iPhone devices in classroom • Students in grade 7 with special needs • Used MyVoice mobile application that links words with pictures+ MyVoice can speak on behalf of users. • MyVoice was purposely created for people with special needs.
iOS application in special needs classrooms (Study)-Analysis of iPod Touch and iPhone devices in classroom• Why were iOS applications chosen?-high popularity-Students perceive iOS application as ‘fun’-Many teachers wanted to incorporate them inthe classroom
iOS application in special needs classrooms (Study)-Analysis of iPod Touch and iPhone devices in classroom Results• MyVoicee positively affects attention and motivation in studentsStudents were excited to use those devices whichkeep them engaged in class. However, the applicationdoes not allow the users to be spontaneous becauseusers have to pictures and add them to the vocabularyitem that does not already have a picture. It can also bea challenge for teachers to integrate the applicationinto their daily classroom routine.
Using iPods and iPads in Teaching Programs forIndividuals with Developmental Disabilities (Study) • Study focuses on 5 domains: -Academic -Communication -Employment -Leisure -Transitioning across school settings. • 47 participants • 4 to 27 years of age • had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability. involved the use of iPods or iPads
Using iPods and iPads in Teaching Programs forIndividuals with Developmental Disabilities (Study) Studies on Academic skills- 2 Participants (one with Asperger syndrome and another one with ADHD) were given an iPad.- There was a video clip on the iPad to show students how to use the spell-check function on word processing application- Results showed that both participants had an increase in the correct use of the spell function (eventually having 100% on their performance)
Using iPods and iPads in Teaching Programs forIndividuals with Developmental Disabilities (Study) Studies on communication skills-iPod Touch with Proloquo2Go software given to 3people with developmental disabilities in order torequest snacks +toys.-Person was guiding the participants’ hands totouch the correct application on the iPod Touch-This application makes it easier for people withdisabilities to communicate with other what theywant to say or what they may need.-Using those devices give positive results inclassrooms.
Using iPods and iPads in Teaching Programs forIndividuals with Developmental Disabilities (Study)• The studies showed that people with disabilities can use those devices for different purposes• In the study, people were diagnosed with severe disabilities. This shows that even if a student has a serious impairment they can still learn to use technological devices.
References• Campigotto, R., McEwen, R., and Epp, D. C. (2013). Especially Social: Exploring the Use of an iOS Application in Special Needs Classrooms. Computer & Education. 60(1), 74-86.• Kagohar, M.D., Meer, V. D. L., Ramdoss, S., O’Reilly F. M., Lancioni E. G., Davis, N. T., Rispoli, M., Lang, R., Marschilk, B. P., Sutherland, D., Green, A. V., Sigafoos, J. (2013). Using iPods and iPads in Teaching Programs for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 34(1), 147-156.• http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-004-x/2006005/9588-eng.htm• http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/adhd/DS00275/DSECTION=symptoms• http://www.ldac-acta.ca/en/learn-more/ld-defined.html• http://www.learningrx.com/history-of-special-education.htm