Media theory

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Media theory

  1. 1. Media Theory The instructional design knowledge base
  2. 2. Key Principles <ul><li>The value of media in the learning process is a function of their fidelity & the extent to which the experiences seem to be occurring simultaneously with real-life events. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete experiences facilitate the acquisition of abstract generalizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is increased as the number of audio & visual stimuli increase </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  3. 3. Key Principles <ul><li>Visual information is retained more than verbal information since it is processed in both the visual & verbal working memories </li></ul><ul><li>Media selection & design should adapt to the characteristics of the learners, the content, the learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Media can influence the development of student cognitive skills & the internal representation of information </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  4. 4. Philosophical emphases <ul><li>The following generalizations can be made: </li></ul><ul><li>Objects directly presented to our senses represent the objects that actually exist in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Reality can be baased upon directly experiencing & manipulating concrete objects </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  5. 5. Basic research support <ul><li>Skinner’s research on contingencies of reinforcement, Paivo’s research on dual coding </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  6. 6. Early contributors <ul><li>William Allen, Edgar Dale, Charles Hoban, Jr. & Arthur Lumsdaine </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  7. 7. ID Application <ul><li>Automating instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Media selection (face-to-face & Online setting) </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Computer-Based Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Online Worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations and Games </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  8. 8. Supporting ID Research <ul><li>Media & learning research </li></ul><ul><li>Media attributes research </li></ul><ul><li>Media comparison research </li></ul><ul><li>Media design & development research </li></ul><ul><li>Media use research </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  9. 9. Related concepts: <ul><li>Aptitude-treatment interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Cone of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible learning </li></ul><ul><li>Immersive technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching machines & individualized instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment (TELE) </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  10. 10. ID design domains & elements related to media theory Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  11. 11. Learners & Learning processes <ul><li>Learner characteristics (aptitude, demographics, background) </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed learning process </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  12. 12. Learning & performance contexts <ul><li>Instructional environment (e.g. Location of instructor & students, group size, delivery conditions, connectivity, storage & facilties) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity between learning & performance contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Support available(technical & maintenance) </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  13. 13. Content structure & sequence <ul><li>Visualization of content </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  14. 14. Instructional & noninstructional strategies <ul><li>Facilitating activity & engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating communication online </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating interaction (between learners, between learners & instructors) </li></ul><ul><li>Individualizing instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Providing concrete experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducing real-life activities & events </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  15. 15. Media delivery systems <ul><li>Media capabilities & attributes (e.g. richness, social presence) </li></ul><ul><li>Media costs </li></ul><ul><li>Media functions (e.g. presentation,feedback,practice,manager of interactions) </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  16. 16. Media delivery systems <ul><li>Media selection (cues, interaction, symbol system, relating to content, learner characteristics, instructional strategy, environment, management) </li></ul><ul><li>Role in learning process (e.g. part of stimulus,part of response) </li></ul><ul><li>Type of delivery (e.g. synchronous or asynchronous) </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  17. 17. Designers & design processes <ul><li>Design of online learning </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia design (e.g. increasing cues, sound over visuals) </li></ul><ul><li>Product development </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 woodsy/sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation.
  18. 18. Media Theory END The instructional design knowledge base: Theory research & practice Rita C. Richey, James D. Klein, & Monica W. Tracey 2010

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