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  1. 1. Chapter 1 Computer-Assisted English Language Learning and Teaching
  2. 2. What is CALL? Computer Assisted Language Learning ( CALL ) may be defined as " the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning ".
  3. 3. The History of CALL <ul><li>Computers have been used for language teaching since the 1960s. This 30+ year history can be roughly divided into three main stages: behavioristic CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL. </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage corresponds to a certain level of technology as well as a certain pedagogical approach. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Behavioristic CALL <ul><li>Behavioristic CALL, conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the 1960s and 1970s, could be considered a sub-component of the broader field of computer-assisted instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Informed by the behaviorist learning model, this mode of CALL featured repetitive language drills, referred to as drill-and-practice </li></ul>
  5. 5. Behavioristic CALL <ul><li>In this paradigm, especially popular in the United States, the computer was viewed as a mechanical tutor which never grew tired or judgmental and allowed students to work at an individual pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Though behaviorist CALL eventually gravitated to the personal computer, it was first designed and implemented in the era of the mainframe. </li></ul><ul><li>The best-known tutorial system, PLATO, ran on its own special hardware consisting of a central computer and terminals and featured extensive drills, grammatical explanations, and translation tests at various intervals (Ahmad, Corbett, Rogers, & Sussex, 1985). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Communicative CALL <ul><li>communicative CALL, emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at the same time that behavioristic approaches to language teaching were being rejected at both the theoretical and pedagogical level, and when new personal computers were creating greater possibilities for individual work. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Communicative CALL <ul><li>Proponents of communicative CALL stressed that computer-based activities should focus more on using forms than on the forms themselves, teach grammar implicitly rather than implicitly, allow and encourage students to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language, and use the target language predominantly or even exclusively (Jones & Fortescue, 1987; Phillips, 1987; Underwood, 1984). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communicative CALL <ul><li>Communicative CALL corresponded to cognitive theories which stressed that learning was a process of discovery, expression, and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular CALL software developed in this period included text reconstruction programs (which allowed students working alone or in groups to rearrange words and texts to discover patterns of language and meaning) and simulations (which stimulated discussion and discovery among students working in pairs or groups). </li></ul><ul><li>For many proponents of communicative CALL, the focus was not so much on what students did with the machine, but rather what they with each other while working at the computer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. social or socio-cognitive approach/integrative call <ul><li>Many teachers were moving away from a cognitive view of communicative teaching to a more social or socio-cognitive view, which placed greater emphasis on language use in authentic social contexts. Task-based, project-based, and content-based approaches all sought to integrate learners in authentic environments, and also to integrate the various skills of language learning and use. This led to a new perspective on technology and language learning, which has been termed integrative CALL (Warschauer, 1996b), a perspective which seeks both to integrate various skills (e.g., listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and also integrate technology more fully into the language learning process. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Student <ul><li>In integrative approaches, students learn to use a variety of technological tools as an ongoing process of language learning and use, rather than visiting the computer lab on a once a week basis for isolated exercises (whether the exercises be behavioristic or communicative). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Integrative CALL <ul><li>the mainframe was the technology of behavioristic CALL, and the PC the technology of communicative CALL, </li></ul><ul><li>the multimedia networked computer is the technology of integrative CALL. The multimedia networked computer--with a range of informational, communicative, and publishing tools now potentially at the fingertips of every student--provides not only the possibilities for much more integrated uses of technology, </li></ul>
  12. 12. the changes in CALL paradigms <ul><li>It flows from economic and social changes. </li></ul><ul><li>It shifts to global information-based economies has meant a dramatic increase in the need to deal with large amounts of information and to communicate across languages and cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization is less important in this information-rich time than effective search strategies, and students need the ability to respond and adapt to changes rather than training in a single way to approach a task </li></ul>
  13. 13. Teacher roles <ul><li>Teacher roles have also changed with the times. Teachers are rarely the sole source of language information in these days of global interconnectedness, and the literary corpus that may have been the basis of their foreign language training is not the only body of knowledge worth learning. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Teacher Roles <ul><li>the teacher has become a facilitator of learning rather than the font of wisdom, and will find, select, and offer information in a variety of ways on the basis of what their students must learn in order to meet diverse needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Having and manipulating language data in multiple media provides learners with the raw material they can use to re-create the language for themselves, using their own organizing schemes. Activities that encourage students to explore and be creators of language rather than passive recipients of it further the idea of the learner as an active participant in learning (Brown, 1991). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Teacher Roles <ul><li>As facilitators, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers must in many ways know more than they would as directive givers of information. Facilitators must be aware of a variety of material available for improving students' language skill, not just one or two texts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also need to know how to teach learners to use the material effectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers as facilitators have to be able to respond to the needs that students have, not just what has been set up ahead of time based on a curriculum developer's idea of who will be in the classroom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher training is a key element to success in this more flexible language classroom, so that teachers can use multimedia and other resources effectively. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. CALL Activities <ul><li>To apply using computer for teaching and learning language </li></ul><ul><li>To use technology-based approach in different settings </li></ul>
  17. 17. EFL Revised Curriculum <ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Listening-Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul>
  18. 18. Grammar <ul><li>Traditional Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture on form& function </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook-based </li></ul><ul><li>Revised Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery learning </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Style checkers, concordanceer, digitized corpora, email. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Listening-speaking <ul><li>Lecture/notetaking, answering comprehension check questions </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction through class discussions and collaborative tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Audiotape, email </li></ul>
  20. 20. Writing <ul><li>Write on a specified topics following model compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Process writing based on individual responses to short stories,class discussions and peer correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing, email </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reading <ul><li>Read for selected work from literary cannon for comprehension and vocabulary, lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Read for response and developing interpretations of contemporary fiction, student-centered, response-based conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Print, email </li></ul>
  22. 22. Teaching thinking & inquiry-based learning <ul><li>Contructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner </li></ul><ul><li>Students are afforded opportunities to construct their own meaning through student-directed interaction with rich resources and problems. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chapter 2 ICT and English Learning and Teaching
  24. 24. ICT in Education Information and communications technologies (ICT) are the computing and communications facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education. ICT is becoming less related to the word-based text and is now essentially multimedia ,involving sound, pictures and the moving image. (Abbot, 2001). Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching Have you ever heard of quinine?
  25. 25. The Department for Education and Employment (DfEE, 1988) stated that ICT is more than a teaching tool. Its potential for improving the quality and standards of pupils’ education is significant. Equally,its potential is considerable for supporting teachers, both in their everyday classroom role, for example by reducing the time occupied by the administration, and in their continuing training and development. Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching ICT in Education
  26. 26. The effectiveness of ICT use in education is more than just the requisite technical skills. The success of ICT use depends on our familiarity with good practice firmly rooted in an understanding how pupil learns. Our reflection on optimal environments is ICT use as bases for pedagogic innovation beyond the assimilation of new technologies into prevailing traditions of classroom practice. เด็กเล่นคอม ICT in Education Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching
  27. 27. The process of becoming literate today involves more than learning how to use language effectively; rather, the process amplifies and changes both the cognitive and the linguistic functioning of the individual in society. One who is literate knows how to gather, analyze, and use information resources to solve problems and make decisions, as well as how to learn both independently and cooperatively. Literacy Definition and Multiliterate Students Chapter 2. ICT and English Learning and Teaching
  28. 28. Ultimately literate individuals possess a range of skills that enable them to the participate fully in all aspects of modern society.Succeeding in a digital, information-oriented society demands multiliteracies, that is competence in an even more diverse set of functional, academic,critical,and electronic skills. (Kasper, 2000). Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching Literacy Definition and Multiliterate Students
  29. 29. To be considered multiliterate, students today must acquire skills that will enable them to take advantage of the diverse modes of communication made possible by new technologies and to participate in global learning communities. In their attempts to become multiliterate ESL students must acquire linguistic competence in a new language and develop the cognitive and sociocultural skills necessary to gain access into the environments. They must become functionally literate, able to speak, understand, read and write English as well as use English to acquire, articulate and expand their knowledge. Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching Literacy Definition and Multiliterate Students
  30. 30. They must also become academically literate , able to read and understand interdisplinary texts,analyze and respond to those texts through various modes of written and oral discourse, and expand their knowledge through sustained and focused research. Further they must become critically literate ,the ability to evaluate the validity and reliability of international sources so that they may draw appropriate conclusions from their research efforts.Finally, students must become electronical literate, able to select and use electronic tools for communication, construction, research, and autonomous learning. Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching Literacy Definition and Multiliterate Students
  31. 31. Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching Literacy Definition and Multiliterate Students Shetzer, H. & Warchauer, M. (2000) stated that new electronic literacies include computer literacy (comfort and fluently in keyboard and computer use), information literacy (the ability to find and critically evaluate online information), multimedia literacy (the ability to produce and interpret complex documents comprising texts, images, and sounds), and computer-mediated communication literacy (knowledge of the pragmatics of individual and group online interaction.
  32. 32. Chapter 2:ICT and English Learning and Teaching Literacy Definition and Multiliterate Students Electronic literacy involves not only adapting our eyes to read from the screen instead of the page, but also adapting our vision of the nature of literacy and purpose of reading and writing (Warschauer, 2002).
  33. 33. In conclusion, the use of technology in language teaching lies on human capacity as teachers plan,design,implement effective education activity. Appropriate use of new technologies allows more than integration of language, content,and culture and provides students to be autonomous learners. (Warschauer, M. & Meskill, C. 2000). Chapter 2: ICT and English Learning and Teaching Literacy Definition and Multiliterate Students
  34. 34. Ch2: ICT & English Learning & Teaching <ul><li>ICT Policy in Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>(Resource: http://www.unescobkk.org/index) </li></ul><ul><li>Education in Thailand is undergoing a reform process led by the Education Reform Act adopted in 1999 . In the context of this reform, a national policy was formulated by the newly established National Institute for Technology for Education ( NICTE ). </li></ul><ul><li>The Government of Thailand recognizes that it is vital to realize that ICT must be viewed as a tool for achieving broader national objectives, both social and economic, rather than regarding ICT as merely an end in itself . </li></ul>
  35. 35. Ch2: ICT & English Learning & Teaching <ul><li>The National ICT plan recognizes that a massive programme to introduce computers, multimedia, and distance education facilities to all state schools is imperative . Initiatives include to : </li></ul><ul><li>Give all teachers, college lecturers and professors, school children and college students opportunities to learn to use ICT . The goal is to employ ICT as an enabling tool to access information and gain knowledge through self - paced learning, or through interactions with teachers and fellow students . </li></ul><ul><li>Link schools, colleges, universities, and libraries electronically to provide students, teachers and lecturers an enriched environment in which distant resources can be made available remotely at finger tips . </li></ul><ul><li>Make full use of ICT and distance education to meet the needs and aspirations of all citizens for continuous education and skills upgrading without regards to age, profession, distance, or geography </li></ul>
  36. 36. Ch2: ICT & English Learning & Teaching <ul><li>National ICT Policy in Thailand as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>IT 2000-the first National IT Policy emphasized three goals </li></ul><ul><li>(1) To build an equitable national information infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>(2) To invest in people to accelerate the supply of IT manpower and to develop an IT-literate workforce </li></ul><ul><li>(3) To achieve good governance through the use of IT in delivering public services and in government administration </li></ul><ul><li>IT 2010:Towards the Knowledge-Based Society and Economy </li></ul><ul><li>The principles to support ICT for KBE/KBS framework are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building human capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote innovation, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invest in information infrastructure and promote the information industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To achieve the goals five main sectors have to be developed as follows: e-Society, e-Education, e-Government, e-Commerce, and e-Industry. </li></ul><ul><li>e-Education includes issues of life-long learning, computer literacy, human resource development, virtual education, etc. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Ch2: ICT & English Learning & Teaching <ul><li>Benefits of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>(Resource: http://www.ict4lt.org/en/index.html/ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Walker R., Hewer S. & Davies G. (2006) identified the benefits of ICT as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>ICT is motivating both for students and for teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT offers a wide range of multimedia resources enabling text, still images, audio and video to be combined in interesting and stimulating ways, both for presentation purposes in the classroom, using projection facilities and interactive whiteboards, and for independent learning in a computer lab. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT offers access to a rich resource of authentic materials: on the Web and also on CD-ROM and DVD. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication worldwide is made possible via email and videoconferencing with native speakers. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Electronic Literacy <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Language teachers must not use only email to promote English teaching but teach English to help people to learn communicate effectively by email. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Autonomy <ul><li>Autonomous learners </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to develop, explore, evaluate, and adapt new technology </li></ul>
  40. 40. Mark’s articles <ul><li>Literacy and Technology: Bridging the Divide </li></ul><ul><li>By Mark Warschauer, University of California, Irvine </li></ul><ul><li>2. A Developmental Perspective on Technology in Language Learning </li></ul>
  41. 41. Literacy <ul><li>Electronic literacy involves not only adapting our eyes to read from the screen instead of the page, but also adapting our vision of the nature of literacy and purpose of reading andwriting </li></ul>
  42. 42. Educational Literacy Policy and Technology <ul><li>This point hints at the potential of combining new information and communication technologies and literacy. Whether in society (Halliday, 1993), academia (Harnad, 1991), or the classroom (G. Wells, 1990, 1994a, 1994b; Gordon Wells & </li></ul><ul><li>Chang-Wells, 1992), language has two main functions: it allows us to </li></ul><ul><li>interact communicatively and </li></ul><ul><li>to interpret experience by organizing it into meaning (Halliday, </li></ul><ul><li>1993). </li></ul>
  43. 43. Mentor roles <ul><li>Note the mentor’s role in this example is not that of an instructional tutor to </li></ul><ul><li>tutees, but a leader in a collaborative process of inquiry, as suggested by the textmediational </li></ul><ul><li>perspective discussed earlier. And note also the importance of social context </li></ul><ul><li>in shaping learning. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Both language and technology are tools for individual and societal development . The paper introduces a developmental approach to integrating technology in language education, based on consideration of both product and process . It then illustrates these concepts through analysis of a large US - funded English language developmental program in Egypt . Two projects are examined : a teacher education program on computers in English language teaching and a basic English methodology course taught via video - conferencing . The analysis indicates that a developmental approach is critical to successful integration and use of technology in language education programs </li></ul>A Developmental Perspective on Technology in Language Learning
  45. 45. <ul><li>A developmental approach to technology in language learning reflects these same two issues : </li></ul><ul><li>an expanded product and a special attention to process . Starting with product, the rapid diffusion of information and communication technology ( ICT ) is shifting the goal posts of what it means to be a competent language user . </li></ul><ul><li>For example, with the number of e - mail messages sent and received annually exceeding 3 trillion ( Pastore, 1999 ) , e - mail has joined other media as an essential means of communication . Indeed, according to one study, a plurality of US managers believe that e - mail is the principal means of communications in their business, surpassing the telephone, fax, and even face - to - face conversation ( American Management Association International, cited in Warschauer, 2000 ). </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Therefore, language teachers must not only use e - mail to promote English teaching ( Warschauer, 1995 ) , but also teach English to help people learn to communicate effectively by e - mail . Similarly, with the World Wide Web becoming an essential medium of information exchange in economic, academic, and civic affairs, the literacies of accessing and publishing Web - based information must also become part of English language teaching curricula . New electronic literacies ( Shetzer & Warschauer, 2000; Warschauer, 1999a, in press ) include computer literacy ( comfort and fluency in keyboarding and computer use ) , information literacy ( the ability to find and critically evaluate online information ) , multimedia literacy ( the ability to produce and interpret complex documents comprising texts, images, and sounds ) , and computer - mediated communication literacy ( knowledge of the pragmatics of individual and group online interaction ). </li></ul><ul><li>These literacies are important in many languages, but they are especially critical in English since more than 50% of the world's online content is in the English language ( Cyberspeech, 1997 ). The extensive amount of online information and communication in English provides the possibilities and, in many contexts the imperative, to reconstruct the English language curriculum to incorporate technology - enhanced communication and project work ( Warschauer, 2000 ). </li></ul>
  47. 47. Chapter 3 Internet English <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Internet-based activities </li></ul>
  48. 48. Definition <ul><li>The internet is a network of people and information, linked together by telephone lines which are connected to computers </li></ul><ul><li>There are many ways to transport information through email, and www </li></ul>
  49. 49. History <ul><li>The Internet was started during the 1960s in the United States as ARPAnet, a defence department network. One computer was linked to another to share information. Gradually, more computers were added to the network, and people began to send simple messages over the network to distant colleagues. This was adopted by the academic community and became the tool as the Internet today. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Applications <ul><li>e-mail (electronic postal service) </li></ul><ul><li>mailing lists (an automated exchanged of e-mail messages about a chosen topic) </li></ul><ul><li>newsgroups ( a worldwide network of open discussion groups on thousands of subjects) </li></ul><ul><li>chat(a way to communicate in real time ) </li></ul><ul><li>MOO ( a meeting place on the Net, one of several kinds of multi-user environments that evolved from adventure games and roleplay simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing ( a live video link) </li></ul><ul><li>The World Wide Web( multimedia resource and communication tool based on hypertext, a system of clickable links) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Resource <ul><li>Gateway sites </li></ul><ul><li>Webring or ESLoop </li></ul><ul><li>Browsers, directory and search engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keyword </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo is a directory site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Internet-based activities <ul><li>Introducing the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on language </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul>
  53. 53. Reference <ul><li>Dede Teeler and Peta Gray (2000) Use the Internet in ELT. Essex: Longman </li></ul>
  54. 54. Question <ul><li>How does a teacher use the Internet? </li></ul>
  55. 55. Online Teaching & Learning Ko, S. & Rossen,S.(2004).Teaching Online. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company
  56. 56. Definition <ul><li>Teaching online means conducting a course partially or entirely through the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a form of distance education , process that includes courses taught through the mail, by video tape, or via telephone hookups or satellite TV- any form of learning that does not involve the traditional classroom setting in which students &instructor must be at the same place at the same time. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Different resource levels: 3 types <ul><li>The High-tech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-scale course management system (course management software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off campus students can log onto the institution’s LAN. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skillful personnel to porovide design & training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Mid-tech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Website have pointers to individual courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft word, PC-Based conferencing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to Institution’s backbone network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Low-tech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no experience offering courses online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to the internet via an ordinary modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sufficient skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Website contains administrative information </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Course Development <ul><li>The creation of a syllabus, class schedule, content, and exam,as well as activities the class will follow. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Course Development (cont.) <ul><li>The activities can be divides into categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group-oriented work and student presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul>
  60. 60. Instructor presentation <ul><li>Lectures, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online formats alone or in combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text: Websites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint Slide Shows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrated slides & Audio or video lectures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>simulations, charts and graphs, as well as computer-asssisted presentation using tools like PowerPoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Guest lecturers. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Discussion <ul><li>Synchronous (not inreal time) or asynchronous modes(in a real time) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entirely online course should be in a synchronous mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous mode in chat which has separated topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous discussion : decide discussion topics after the lectures or presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small group guided discussion sections run by teaching assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Question & answers sessions as adjuncts to lectures, labs, and exams. </li></ul><ul><li>In seminars, instructor presentation & discussion are combined. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Group-oriented work and student presentation <ul><li>Collaborative,cooperative, and other peer activities </li></ul><ul><li>A group project, </li></ul><ul><li>peer reviewed compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Independent project presented to the entire class </li></ul>
  63. 63. Research <ul><li>Web research,library research , fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted in individuals or in group </li></ul><ul><li>Practical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>apprenticeship </li></ul>
  64. 64. Assessment <ul><li>Exams </li></ul><ul><li>Essays </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation & credit for participation </li></ul>
  65. 65. Chapter 4: Research & Evaluation
  66. 66. Ch 4: Research & Evaluation <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Resource: http:// www.calico.org/CALL_document.html </li></ul><ul><li>Research in the field of CALL is continually expanding into new areas, drawing on theories from related fields and creating its own theoretical and methodological paradigms. Terminology has been standardized, points of reference established, and research is organized in a significant number of sub-branches of CALL. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Ch 4: Research & Evaluation <ul><li>Research in CALL may refer to qualitative studies such as the description of a new learning environments, student responses to program interface options, reactions to diverse modes of presenting information, and mapping of student usage patterns within learning environments. It may also refer to quantitative studies such as the testing of the acquisition of phonological and syntactic elements, the systematic investigation of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic variables and their effect on learning with technology, and statistical analysis of the effectiveness of alternative instructional strategies </li></ul>
  68. 68. Ch 4: Research & Evaluation <ul><li>Technology-based language learning materials can provide a superior environment for researching aspects of language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>As an example, a CALL research study might confirm or disprove a hypothesis generated by Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory. The process orientation of much current SLA research can significantly benefit from the collection and analysis of data on student use of CALL materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on how students learn with these materials can contribute to our knowledge of SLA and to the development of CALL theory itself, that is, understanding how the use of technology affects the process of language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>http :// www . calico . org / CALL_document . html </li></ul>
  69. 69. CALT: Introduction (Resource: Chapelle, C(2001). Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. <ul><li>In 1998 and1999 three of the largest providers of educational tests introduced computer-based versions of proficiency test for English as a FL </li></ul><ul><li>At the start of the 21st century CALT is affected by language learners and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>They express the fear that computer delivery may influence test performance </li></ul>
  70. 70. Test Method <ul><li>Paper-and-pencil test </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-adaptive test </li></ul><ul><li>Research results showing method influence are relevant to CALT because the computer can affect several aspects of the test method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test appearances: Method appears to create a test that is more difficult thancorresponding paper-and-pencil one would be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CALT:Each Q is scored after completed, the examinee does not have the option of skipping the Qs and returning to them later. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Factors involved in the relationship between a test context and performance by D.Douglas (1998) <ul><li>Feature of the test context </li></ul><ul><li>Context cues </li></ul><ul><li>Test takers’ interpretation of the test context </li></ul><ul><li>Test takers’ goals and plans for participation </li></ul><ul><li>Test takers’ performance </li></ul>
  72. 72. The test method feature <ul><li>are specified in the test design; however, these may affect test performance because the context cue </li></ul><ul><li>they provide are open to the test takers’ interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the test designer may include an explicit context cue through instructions direction any cloze items; however, the test taker may not read the instructions, may disagree with them, or may simply forget during the process of test taking. In any of these cases, the test taker may begin completing the items without reading the passage despite the efforts of test designer. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Qualities of test usefulness <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Construct validity </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Interactiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Positive impact </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality </li></ul>
  74. 74. Reliability <ul><li>The consistency of the performance reflected in scores </li></ul>
  75. 75. Construct validity <ul><li>The appropriateness of the inferences made on the basis of test score </li></ul>
  76. 76. Authenticity <ul><li>The correspondence of characteristics of the testing activity to characteristics of relevant non-test contexts where language is used </li></ul>
  77. 77. Interactiveness <ul><li>The expected extent of involvement of the testtakers’ knowledge and interest and of their communicative language strategies in accomplishing a test task </li></ul>
  78. 78. Positive impact <ul><li>Positive consequences that a test can have on society and educational systems and on the individuals within the systems and on individuals with the systems (i.e. learners and teachers) </li></ul>
  79. 79. Practicality <ul><li>The adequacy of the available resources for the design, development, use and evaluation of the test. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Chapter 5: HotPotatoes
  81. 81. Components <ul><li>JQuiz การเลือกตอบ Multiple Choice </li></ul><ul><li>การตอบคำถาม Short-answer </li></ul><ul><li>การผสมคำถาม Hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>การเลือกตอบเฉพาะข้อที่ถูกทุกข้อ </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-select questions </li></ul><ul><li>JMix การจัดเรียงประโยค </li></ul><ul><li>Jumbled words or sentence </li></ul><ul><li>JCross อักษรไขว้ Crossword </li></ul><ul><li>JMatch การจับคู่ Matching </li></ul><ul><li>JCloze การเติมคำ Gapfill exercise </li></ul><ul><li>The Masher Building link units of materials </li></ul>
  82. 82. ขั้นตอนการสร้างแบบฝึกหัด มี 3 ขั้นตอน <ul><li>การป้อนข้อมูล ( Entering data) คือ คำถามและคำตอบ </li></ul><ul><li>การกำหนดค่า (Configuring the output) คือการปรับแต่งกำหนดข้อความหรือปุ่มคำสั่ง </li></ul><ul><li>การสร้างเว็บเพจ (Compile) คือการเปลี่ยนแปลงแบบฝึกหัดเป็นภาษา html ให้แสดงผลบนเว็บเพจ </li></ul>
  83. 83. Configure
  84. 84. Compile file
  85. 85. JQuiz: Multiple choice & short answer
  86. 86. JCloze: Gap fill exercise
  87. 87. JMatch: Matching
  88. 88. JCross: Crossword
  89. 89. JMix: Jumble words/sentence
  90. 90. The Masher: Building units
  91. 91. Add Reading Text
  92. 92. Change Font & Color
  93. 93. Add Time
  94. 94. Add Picture
  95. 95. Add Multimedia
  96. 96. End