Pal gov.tutorial1.session5.subtyperelationsandotherconstraints

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Pal gov.tutorial1.session5.subtyperelationsandotherconstraints

  1. 1. ‫أكاديمية الحكومة اإللكترونية الفلسطينية‬ The Palestinian eGovernment Academy www.egovacademy.ps Tutorial 1: Data and Business Process Modeling Session 5Subtype Relations and Other Constraints Prof. Mustafa Jarrar Sina Institute, University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info Reviewed by Prof. Marco Ronchetti, Trento University, Italy PalGov © 2011 1
  2. 2. AboutThis tutorial is part of the PalGov project, funded by the TEMPUS IV program of theCommission of the European Communities, grant agreement 511159-TEMPUS-1-2010-1-PS-TEMPUS-JPHES. The project website: www.egovacademy.psProject Consortium: Birzeit University, Palestine University of Trento, Italy (Coordinator ) Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Palestine Technical University, Palestine Université de Savoie, France Ministry of Telecom and IT, Palestine University of Namur, Belgium Ministry of Interior, Palestine TrueTrust, UK Ministry of Local Government, PalestineCoordinator:Dr. Mustafa JarrarBirzeit University, P.O.Box 14- Birzeit, PalestineTelfax:+972 2 2982935 mjarrar@birzeit.eduPalGov © 2011 2
  3. 3. © Copyright NotesEveryone is encouraged to use this material, or part of it, but should properlycite the project (logo and website), and the author of that part.No part of this tutorial may be reproduced or modified in any form or by anymeans, without prior written permission from the project, who have the fullcopyrights on the material. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SAThis license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creationsunder the identical terms. PalGov © 2011 3
  4. 4. Tutorial Map Intended Learning Objectives Topic TimeModule 1 (Conceptual Date Modeling) Module I: Conceptual Data ModelingA: Knowledge and Understanding11a1: Demonstrate knowledge of conceptual modeling notations and concepts Session 0: Outline and Introduction11a2: Demonstrate knowledge of Object Role Modeling (ORM) methodology. Session 1.1: Information Modeling 111a3: Explain and demonstrate the concepts of data integrity & business rules Session 1.2: Conceptual Data Modeling using ORM 1B: Intellectual Skills Session 1.3: Conceptual Analyses 111b1: Analyze application and domain requirements at the conceptual level, Session 2: Lab- Conceptual Analyses 3and formalize it using ORM. Session 3.1: Uniqueness Rules 1.511b2: Analyze entity identity at the application and domain levels. Session 3.2: Mandatory Rules 1.511b4: Optimize, transform, and (re)engineer conceptual models. Session 4: Lab- Uniqueness & Mandatory Rules 311b5: Detect &resolve contradictions & implications at the conceptual level. Session 5: Subtypes and Other Rules 3C: Professional and Practical Skills Session 6: Lab- Subtypes and Other Rules 311c1: Using ORM modeling tools (Conceptual Modeling Tools). Session 7.1: Schema Equivalence &Optimization 1.5Module 2 (Business Process Modeling) Session 7.2: Rules Check &Schema Engineering 1.5A: Knowledge and Understanding Session 8: Lab- National Student Registry 312a1: Demonstrate knowledge of business process modeling notations and concepts. Module II: Business Process Modeling12a2: Demonstrate knowledge of business process modeling and mapping.12a3: Demonstrate understand of business process optimization and re-engineering. Session 9: BP Management and BPMN: An Overview 3B: Intellectual Skills Session 10: Lab - BP Management 312b1: Identify business processes. Session 11: BPMN Fundamentals 312b2: Model and map business processes. Session 12: Lab - BPMN Fundamentals 312b3: Optimize and re-engineer business processes. Session 13: Modeling with BPMN 3C: Professional and Practical Skills Session 14: Lab- Modeling with BPMN 312c1: Using business process modeling tools, such as MS Visio. Session 15: BP Management & Reengineering 3 Session 16: Lab- BP Management & Reengineering 3 PalGov © 2011 4
  5. 5. Session ILOsAfter completing this session students will be able to: 11a3: Explain and demonstrate the concepts of data integrity and business rules. 11b1: Analyze application and domain requirements at the conceptual level, and formalize it using ORM. 11b2: Analyze entity identity at the application and domain levels. PalGov © 2011 5
  6. 6. Conceptual Schema Design Steps1. From examples to elementary facts2. Draw fact types and apply population check3. Combine entity types4. Add uniqueness constraints5. Add mandatory constraints6. Add subtype relations and other constraints7. Final checks, & schema engineering issues PalGov © 2011 6
  7. 7. Outline • Quick Math background • Value Constraints • Set Constrains o Subset o Equality o Exclusion • Subtype relations • Frequency constraints PalGov © 2011 7
  8. 8. Mathematical BackgroundHypothetical Euler diagrams for set comparisons. PalGov © 2011 8
  9. 9. Mathematical BackgroundVenn diagrams for three set-forming operations. PalGov © 2011 9
  10. 10. Mathematical BackgroundVenn diagrams for (a) A is a proper subset of B and (b) four sets. PalGov © 2011 10
  11. 11. Outline • Quick Math background • Value Constraints • Set Constrains o Subset o Equality o Exclusion • Subtype relations • Frequency constraints PalGov © 2011 11
  12. 12. Value Constraint Called Value Constraint A set of values, from which the value of the MedalKind is limited to PalGov © 2011 12
  13. 13. Value Constraint The value of sex should be one of {„M‟, „F‟} PalGov © 2011 13
  14. 14. Value ConstraintValue constraints may list the possible values of a value type. Who can give more examples? PalGov © 2011 14
  15. 15. Outline • Quick Math background • Value Constraints • Set Constrains o Subset o Equality o Exclusion • Subtype relations • Frequency constraints PalGov © 2011 15
  16. 16. Role subset/equality constraintSubset constraint: Equality constraint:Every Member booked an Hour Every Member „has‟ ReactionTimeshould play sport. should „has‟ HeartRate, and every Member „has‟ HeartRate should „has‟ ReactionTime. PalGov © 2011 16
  17. 17. Role subset constraint Notice that this subset constraint is implied, and should be removed. That is, there is no need to say that every A playing r2 must also play r1 (subset), because the mandatory constraint here means that every A must play r1 (the Mandatory implies the subset). PalGov © 2011 17
  18. 18. Role equality constraint Also this quality constraint is implied, and should be removed. PalGov © 2011 18
  19. 19. Implication Who can explain the difference?The two constraints in the first model say: each A must play r1 or r2 (orboth), and that if A plays r2 then it must play r1. This means that r1 mustbe always played (which is the second model) PalGov © 2011 19
  20. 20. Role Exclusion Constraint Exclusion constraint: Every Employee is allocated a ParkingSpace should not claim MoneyAmt. PalGov © 2011 20
  21. 21. Role Exclusion Constraint PalGov © 2011 21
  22. 22. Role Exclusion Constraint Each partner must be either a husband or wife (but not both at the same time).Called “Exclusive-or” PalGov © 2011 22
  23. 23. Exclusive-or (another example) Each Account must be OwnedBy a Person or a Company, but not both. PalGov © 2011 23
  24. 24. Role Exclusion ConstraintEach person has at most one of three vices. i.e., from 0 to 3 vices. It can be written also as PalGov © 2011 24
  25. 25. Pair Exclusion Constraint How can we restrict that a person can drive a car only if he owns that car. PalGov © 2011 25
  26. 26. Pair-subset constraintAn example of a tuple-subset constraint between sequences of three roles. PalGov © 2011 26
  27. 27. Equality Constraint PalGov © 2011 27
  28. 28. Pair Exclusion ConstraintCan the same person „own‟ and „wants to buy‟ the same car? PalGov © 2011 28
  29. 29. What is Wrong?     Implies Implies Implies PalGov © 2011 29
  30. 30. Outline • Quick Math background • Value Constraints • Set Constrains o Subset o Equality o Exclusion • Subtype relations • Frequency constraints PalGov © 2011 30
  31. 31. Subtypes Person Male Female• Generalization/Specialization hierarchy.• A subtype inherits the properties of its supertype. PalGov © 2011 31
  32. 32. Subtypes Person * Australian Female Female Australian* The indirect subtype connection is implied, so it should be omitted PalGov © 2011 32
  33. 33. Subtypes PalGov © 2011 33
  34. 34. Subtypes Person Person Person Male Female Male Female Male FemaleThere is no person that Every person must be a Every person must becan be Male and Female Male or a female. either a Male or a Femaleat the same time. PalGov © 2011 34
  35. 35. SubtypesWhat isInherited? PalGov © 2011 35
  36. 36. What is Wrong? PalGov © 2011 36
  37. 37. Outline • Quick Math background • Value Constraints • Set Constrains o Subset o Equality o Exclusion • Subtype relations • Frequency constraints also called “Occurrence constraints” PalGov © 2011 37
  38. 38. Frequency constraints To indicate that each entry in a fact column must occur there exactly n times, the number n is written beside the role.Each city in the firstcolumn must occur each drive kind in the three times. Second column must appear there twice A compound transaction is needed to initially populate this fact type requiring at least six facts to be added. PalGov © 2011 38
  39. 39. Frequency constraints n A r Each member of pop(r) occurs there exactly n times. n must be a positive integer. 1A r A r If n = 1, this is equivalent to a uniqueness constraint PalGov © 2011 39
  40. 40. Compound Frequency ConstraintThe values of (Year and City) must occur exactly three times PalGov © 2011 40
  41. 41. Ranged Frequency ConstraintExamples of minimum and maximum frequency constraints. Each name of panel must occur at least 4 and at most 7 times. That is, each panel must include 4 to 7 experts Each expert can referee 5 papers Each paper can be refereed by at least two experts. PalGov © 2011 41
  42. 42. DiscussionSummarize what you learned? And what you think about it?Compare what you learned with EER and UML?Questions & Suggestions? PalGov © 2011 42
  43. 43. References1. Information Modeling and Relational Databases: From Conceptual Analysis to Logical Design, Terry Halpin (ISBN 1- 55860-672-6) – Chapter 6. PalGov © 2011 43

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