Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Electronic communication and knowledge systems


Published on

Using the internet for communicating research information.
Author: Jarmo Saarikko
Date: 11-Nov-2000
Event: From Research to Application - the second Nordic Forum, 11-12.5.2000, Espoo, Finland

Published in: Business, Education
  • Be the first to comment

Electronic communication and knowledge systems

  1. 1. From Research to Application - the second Nordic Forum, 11-12.5.2000, Espoo, Finland Electronic communication and knowledge systems Jarmo Saarikko Skogsforskningsinstitutet, Unionsgatan 40A, FIN-00170 HELSINGFORS,Finland [email_address]
  2. 2. World Wide web <ul><ul><li>WWWW has affected the ways we work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information access and exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the global level to the local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The full impact on the way we work and on society is still unknown </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Advantages <ul><ul><li>Permanence of 24-hours per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediacy of information discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility from almost anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De-centralised approaches allowing content owners to maintain full rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value for money with low-cost solutions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. General search engines <ul><ul><li>No more able to cover the whole net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The next generation of search tools will contain more specialised and targeted services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More and more services will be provided to registered clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User interfaces can be modified according to personal requirements </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Competition for users <ul><ul><li>one user usually cannot effectively use but a few different services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most services on the internet have been free, their funding is often based on advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research information in forestry is often non-competetive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, if the target audience is the general public the information producer enters the same competitive field as described above </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. New kinds of services <ul><ul><li>Simple provision of announcements and communications is not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net users demand ways to give feed-back, chat-rooms, customisation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How does anyone know you are there? <ul><ul><li>All traditional means of marketing have to be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is very costly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something has to be new or updated all the time otherwise the users do not come back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to know that something new is available? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A community of registered users makes this goal easier to accomplish. </li></ul>
  8. 8. One-way communication: Web-pages <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>Clean type-setting </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to produce and publish </li></ul><ul><li>Size is not a limitation </li></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to announce new pages - links on homepage or on a 'what's new list' </li></ul><ul><li>Long delay until new pages are found by search engines </li></ul><ul><li>Web-pages need to have a user-friendly design </li></ul>
  9. 9. One-way: e-mail <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>Rather easy to install </li></ul><ul><li>Use mailing list software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic subscription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listserv, Majordomo etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution to dedicated subscribers </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper than traditional means - larger distribution possible </li></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>List has to be moderated </li></ul><ul><li>Simple text-only </li></ul><ul><li>Yet another format to be distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Images cannot be used </li></ul><ul><li>(html email is still unwanted) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Interactive communication: mailing lists <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Clients may discuss with each other </li></ul><ul><li>May lead to a community </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and answers are mutually beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>Discussons can be viewed on a web-site </li></ul><ul><li>Distirbution is global </li></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>List may be dominated by a few active talkers </li></ul><ul><li>Negative feedback cannot be blocked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unless the list is moderated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List should be moderated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attachments may spread viruses (esp. Microsoft) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Interactive: Newsgroups <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>New messages appear automatically to readers </li></ul><ul><li>Many groups are archived on the web </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a news-server </li></ul><ul><li>Private newsgroups are more difficult to propagate </li></ul><ul><li>Public groups are often spam-prone </li></ul><ul><li>Group should be moderated </li></ul><ul><li>Messages disappear rather quickly </li></ul>
  12. 12. Interactive: Hypernews <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>Use with a web-browser </li></ul><ul><li>Allows anonymous use </li></ul><ul><li>No email necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes e-mail notification </li></ul><ul><li>Usually no moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical groups </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>Following discussions means constant checking at the web-service </li></ul><ul><li>Message deletion difficult? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Interactive: IRC <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Widely known </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>Instant </li></ul><ul><li>Private channels </li></ul><ul><li>Good for private long distance discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Many servers </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Relay Chat </li></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>Usually considered as a playground for school children </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation of discussions is problematic </li></ul><ul><li>Specific IRC software required </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interactive: chat-rooms <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>Usually cgi-based or with java-applications </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive and instant </li></ul><ul><li>May be used for on-line Questions and Answers with a named specialist or on a TV-show </li></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>People need rules for their behaviour in rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups may be difficult for newcomers </li></ul><ul><li>Usually not linked to other chat services </li></ul><ul><li>Private groups not available </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by ads </li></ul><ul><li>May be addictive </li></ul>
  15. 15. Chat with a specialist on yahoo <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>10.5.2000 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Electronic Communities <ul><li>PRO </li></ul><ul><li>Often with a pack of free services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat-rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document archives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually founded around a topic or for a customer group </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>CON </li></ul><ul><li>Identity of participants not always known or certain </li></ul><ul><li>Large system to install </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity of free services is uncertain </li></ul>
  17. 17. Examples of free communities <ul><li>You may start your own groups in these. Some systems allow private groups which can be used by invitation only. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>view by a </li></ul><ul><li>registered </li></ul><ul><li>users </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Egroup view of a non-registerd user </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Egroup view by a registered user </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Intranet view by a registered user at </li></ul>
  22. 23. Knowledge systems: standalone <ul><ul><li>Currently CD-ROMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a system includes full-text databases with some intelligence handling the requests or results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks, interactive images and maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent search with various criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results found may be combined or extracted to be used in reports and papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. CABI Forestry Compendium CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. CABI Forestry compendium <ul><li>Source: </li></ul>
  24. 25. Knowledge systems: Networked <ul><ul><li>Portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forest Finland, Skogsverige, Skogen is Skolan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are developing from link collections into knowledge systems and/or e-communities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. SIREX and Skogsskada services for forest pest diagnosis and handbook </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often registration is required </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to internal systems for registered clients or subscribers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional: On-line databases, Library OPACs </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Knowledge discovery <ul><ul><li>TROPIS - The Tree Growth and Permanent Plot Information System by CIFOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seeks to help forest scientists make better use of existing tree growth information by newsletters, searchable index and database - newsletter, link, people database, permanent study plots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIAN - Gujarat Grassroots Innovations Augmentation Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIAN aims to establish linkages between grassroots innovators, entrepreneurs and investors to scale up - newsletter, discussion, research papers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNDP Evaluation Knowledge System (EKSYST) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assists in generating, storing and sharing available information gained through evaluations of projects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Links <ul><li>PORTALS </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Skogssverige </li></ul><ul><li>Skogen I Skolan </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>Metinfo </li></ul><ul><li>Sirex </li></ul><ul><li>Skogsskada </li></ul><ul><li>TROPIS </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP EKSYST </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION DELIVERY </li></ul><ul><li>GIAN - innovation network </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity events </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  27. 28. Problems for discussion <ul><li>How to choose a proper tool for electronic communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-way or interactive? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Announcing new research results or finding new research problems needing answers? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target groups for tools? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular ‘traditional’ or irregular ‘new’ clients? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge system vs. Expert system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a difference? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database vs. a static system? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a knowledge system should be developed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parameters and/or problems given by the client </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>