is Different When a
Source Code Order
and screen reader reading order too!
• Use CSS (ﬂoat, position, etc.) to control
• Navigation order should follow visual ﬂow
• Sidebars before or after main content?
• Be careful with “content ﬁrst” approach
• Design reading/navigation order early
Screen Reader Navigation
• Links and form controls
Standard Browser Navigation
• Links and form controls
Do not remove the focus
indicators from links
“Skip to main content” or
to main content</a>
ARIA Landmark Roles
• application, banner, complementary,
contentinfo, main, navigation, form, and
• Allows easy access to major page
• The end of "skip" links? What about
sighted keyboard users?
You can add aria-label to differentiate
multiple landmarks of the same type.
HTML5 and Landmark
<main> - role="main"
<article> - role="article"
<footer> - role="contentinfo"
<header> - role="banner"
<nav> - role="navigation"
<aside> - role="complementary"
ARIA Support > HTML5 Support
so use both... for now
Ensure Interactive Elements
are Links or Form Controls
make non-focusable elements focusable with
... unless you're sure you know what you're doing.
If the default tab order is not logical,
ﬁx your source code order.
tabindex="1+" deﬁnes an explicit tab order
tabindex="0" allows things besides links and
form elements to receive keyboard focus.
tabindex="-1" allows things besides links and
form elements to receive programmatic focus
(by scripting, links, etc.)
<input type=”submit” value=”Submit
Click events do not always trigger via keyboard
for things other than links or form controls...
... even with tabindex=”0”
if(event.keyCode==13 || event.keyCode==32)
Attach an onkeyup event and then check for
Enter (13) and Space (32) key presses:
• Allows non-focusable elements to receive
programmatic focus (by scripting, links, etc.)
• Necessary for focusing dialog boxes, error
• WARNING:This removes the element from
the default tab order.
• Ensure all interactive elements are links or
form controls, or make them focusable
• If using tabindex, detect Enter and Space
• Ensure non-focusable elements (such as
dialog windows) have tabindex=”-1”
before focusing them programmatically.
• Useful for controlling focus within interactive
widgets (menus, tab panels, tree widgets, etc.)
• Set tabindex=”0” on currently active item.This
places it in the tab order.
• Set tabindex=”-1” on all other items.This
removes them from the tab order and makes them
focusable with scripting.
• Use focus() to set focus as user navigates
(arrow keys, etc.)
• tabindex=”0” roves or follows the active item
allowing users to return directly to it later.
• The target was the biggest item on the homepage
- the ﬁrst carousel item.“Nonetheless, the user
failed the task.” - Nielsen Norman Group
• “We have tested rotating offers many times and
have found it to be a poor way of presenting home
page content.” - Wider Funnel
• 1% clicked a feature. Of those, 89% were the ﬁrst
position. 1% of clicks for the most signiﬁcant
object on the home page? - Notre Dame
• “Almost all of the testing I’ve managed has proven
content delivered via carousels to be missed by
users. Few interact with them.” - Adam Fellows
• “Carousels are effective at being able to tell
people in Marketing/Senior Management that their
latest idea is now on the Home Page. In summary,
use them to put content that users will ignore on
your Home Page. Or, if you prefer, don’t use them.
Ever.” - Lee Duddell
• “Carousels are this decade’s <blink> tag.” - Jared
Carousel Accessibility Issues
• Automated carousels violate WCAG 2.0 Success
Criteria 2.2.2. - Pause, Stop, Hide
• Distracting and confusing
• Difﬁcult interaction model
• No relationship between controls and content
• Loss of focus when carousel changes
Carousel Accessibility Solutions
• Avoid auto-playing (optimal) or include a visible
pause button (preferably) before the carousel
• Pause carousel on mouse hover and on keyboard
• Ensure appropriate alternative text.
• Provide context for controls
• Descriptive text
• ARIA tab panel?
• Ensure focused or activated items do not
disappear, or set focus when they do
ARIA Design Patterns for