PSYC 1113 Chapter 9


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  • Discovering Psy2e Fig 91. P 326
  • Discovering Psy2e photo. P 326
  • Discovering Psy2e photo p. 328
  • Table adapted from Myers (5e)
  • These are speaker notes
  • Keywords piaget, conservation Figures from Gray (3e)
  • Study was done by Meltzoff and Borton, 1979. Figure is from Myers 5e
  • PSYC 1113 Chapter 9

    1. 1. IntroChapter 9:LifespanDevelopment
    2. 2. Developmental Psychology• What shapes the way we change over time?• Focus on psychological changes across theentire life span• Every area of psychology can be looked atfrom this perspective– biological development– social development– cognitive/perceptual development– personality development
    3. 3. Fundamental Issues:Is Development Continuous?• Development means change; changecan be abrupt or gradual• Two views of human development– stage theories: there are distinct phases tointellectual and personality development– continuity: development is continuous
    4. 4. Fundamental Issues inDevelopmental Psychology• Critical period —Are there periods whenan individual is particularly sensitive tocertain environmental experiences?– Are the first hours after birth critical forparent-child bonding?– Is first year critical for developing trust?– Easier to learn a language before age 10?
    5. 5. Fundamental Issues:Nature vs. Nurture• What is role of heredity vs. environment indetermining psychological makeup?• These are some of our greatest societaldebates
    6. 6. Overview of Genetics• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes• Chromosomes are long twisted strandsof DNA• DNA is the chemical basis of heredityand carries instructions• Genes are the basic unit of heredity;single unit of DNA on the chromosome
    7. 7. Dominant and Recessive Genes• Genotype—underlying geneticmakeup• Phenotype—traits that are expressed• Dominant genes—will always beexpressed if present• Recessive genes—will not beexpressed unless they are in a pair
    8. 8. Characteristic Dominant RecessiveHair DarkCurlyLightStraightEyes Brown GreyBlueHands 5 fingersNormal limbsExtrafingersLimb dwarfingFace Broad lipsDimplesThin lipsNo dimples
    9. 9. Sex Linked Traits• Traits linked to the X or Y (sex)chromosomes• Usually recessive and carried on the Xchromosome• Appear more frequently in one sex thananother• Color blindness, baldness, hemophilia,Fragile X
    10. 10. Physical and PsychologicalDevelopment Related• Physical development begins at conception• Physical maturity sets limits on psychologicalability– visual system not fully functional at birth– language system not functional until muchlater• Prenatal environment can have lifetimeinfluence on health and intellectual ability
    11. 11. Prenatal Development• Conception—when a sperm penetrates theovum• Zygote—a fertilized egg• Germinal period—first two weeks afterconception• Embryonic period—weeks three througheight after conception• Fetal period—two months after conceptionuntil birth
    12. 12. Prenatal Influenceson Development• Nutrition• Anxiety• Mother’s general health• Maternal age• Teratogens—any agent that causesa birth defect (e.g., drugs, radiation,viruses)
    13. 13. Infant Abilities• Infants are born with immature visualsystem– can detect movement and large objects• Other senses function well on day 1– will orient to sounds– turn away from unpleasant odors– prefer sweet to sour tastes• Born with a number of reflex behaviors
    14. 14. Infant Reflexes• Rooting—turning the head andopening the mouth in the directionof a touch on the cheek• Sucking—sucking rhythmically inresponse to oral stimulation• Babinski—fanning and curling toeswhen foot is stroked
    15. 15. Infant Reflexes• Moro—throwing the arms out, archingthe back and bringing the arms togetheras if to hold onto something (inresponse to loud noise or suddenchange in position of the head)• Grasping—curling the fingers around anobject
    16. 16. Other Infant Milestones: MotorDevelopment
    17. 17. Infant Attachment• Intense emotional bond betweeninfant and caregiver
    18. 18. Temperament• Easy—adaptable, positive mood, regularhabits• Slow to warm up—low activity, somewhatslow to adapt, generally withdraw fromnew situations• Difficult—intense emotions, irritable, cryfrequently• Average—unable to classify (1/3 of allchildren)
    19. 19. Ainsworth’sStrange Situation• Mother-child dyads were observedin a playroom under fourconditions:– initial mother-child interaction– mother leaves infant alone in playroom– friendly stranger enters playroom– mother returns and greets child
    20. 20. Forms of Attachment• Securely attached—explores the roomwhen mother is present, becomes upsetand explores less when mother is notpresent, shows pleasure when motherreturns• Avoidantly attached—a form of insecureattachment in which child avoidsmother and acts coldly to her
    21. 21. Forms of Attachment• Anxious resistant attachment—a formof insecure attachment where the childremains close to mother and remainsdistressed despite her attempts tocomfort
    22. 22. Does child care really affectattachment?• Debate about whether excessive daycareunder age 1 can cause insecure attachment• Overall agreement among researchers is thathigh-quality day care is what matters (e.g.,warmth, activities, well-trained staff, low staffturnover, low child-to-caregiver ratio)
    23. 23. Baby sleeping-arrangements• U.S.: Babies usually sleep in theirown beds• Mayan families and other culturessleep with mother until 2 or 3• Reflects different cultural values ofindependence and interdependence
    24. 24. Universal Characteristicsof Human Language• Language development similar acrosscultures; what are the common elements?• Chomsky believed every child is born with biologicalpredisposition to learn any language• At birth, infants can distinguish among speechsounds off all the world’s languages, until about 10months of age
    25. 25. Encouraging LanguageDevelopment: Motherese• Called “infant-directed speech”,motherese is the way parents speak tobabies: pronunciation, simplifiedvocabulary, high pitches, exaggeratedintonation and expressions• Preferred by infants over adult style• Even found with deaf mothers
    26. 26. Language Development• Infant preference for human speech overother sounds– before 6 months can hear differences used in alllanguages– after 6 months begin to hear only differences used innative language• Cooing—vowel sounds produced 2–4 months• Babbling—consonant/vowel sounds between4 to 6 months• Even deaf infants coo and babble
    27. 27. Language DevelopmentMONTH Speech Characteristic2 Cooing vowel sounds4 Babbling consonant/vowel10 Babbling native language sounds12 One-word stage24 Two-word stage24+ Sentences
    28. 28. Piaget’s Theory ofCognitive Development• Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Swiss psychologistwho became leading theorist in 1930’s• Piaget believed that “children are activethinkers, constantly trying to construct moreadvanced understandings of the world”• These “understandings” are in the form ofstructures he called schemas
    29. 29. Piaget’s Approach• Primary method was to ask children to solveproblems and to question them about thereasoning behind their solutions• Discovered that children think in radicallydifferent ways than adults• Proposed that development occurs as aseries of ‘stages’ differing in how the world isunderstood
    30. 30. Sensorimotor Stage (birth – 2)• Information is gained through thesenses and motor actions• In this stage child perceives andmanipulates but does not reason• Symbols become internalized throughlanguage development• Object permanence is acquired
    31. 31. Object Permanence• The understanding that objects existindependent of one’s actions orperceptions of them• Before 6 months infants act as ifobjects removed from sight cease toexist– Can be surprised bydisappearance/reappearance of a face (peek-a-boo)
    32. 32. Preoperational Stage(2–7 years)• Emergence of symbolic thought• Centration• Egocentrism• Lack the concept of conservation• Animism• Artificialism
    33. 33. Testing Object Permanence inBabies
    34. 34. Piaget’s Conservation TaskIn conservation of number tests, two equivalent rows of coinsare placed side by side and the child says that there is the samenumber in each row. Then one row is spread apart and the childis again asked if there is the same number in each.
    35. 35. Concrete Operational Stage(7–12 years)• Understanding of mental operationsleading to increasingly logical thought• Classification and categorization• Less egocentric• Inability to reason abstractly orhypothetically
    36. 36. Formal Operational Stage(age 12 – adulthood)• Hypothetico-deductive reasoning• Adolescentegocentrism illustratedby the phenomenon of personalfable and imaginary audience
    37. 37. Critique of Piaget’s Theory• Underestimates infant and children’scognitive abilities• Underestimates the role of the socialand cultural environment• Overestimates the degree to whichpeople achieve formal operationalthought processes
    38. 38. Vygotsky’sSociocultural Perspective• Vygotsky—children learn frominteractions with other people– Zone of proximal development—what a child cando by interacting with another person, but can’tdo alone– Critical thinking based on dialogue with otherswho challenge ideas• Piaget—focused on children’sinteraction with the physical world
    39. 39. Information-Processing Perspective• Rather than distinct stages of cognitivedevelopment (Piaget), somedevelopmental psychologistsemphasize this model• Views cognitive development as aprocess that is continuous over the lifespan; studies development of basicmental processes (attention, memory,problem solving)
    40. 40. Adolescence
    41. 41. Physical and Sexual Development• Puberty—stage where an individual reachessexual maturity and is physically capable ofsexual reproduction• Primary sex characteristics—sex organs directlyinvolved in reproduction• Secondary sex characteristics—develop duringpuberty, not directly involved in reproduction, butdistinguish male from female• Adolescent growth spurt—period of acceleratedgrowth during puberty• Menarche—female’s first menstrual period
    42. 42. Influences on Timing of Puberty• Genetics —girls experience menarche aroundsame time as their mother, closer for identicaltwins than non-twin siblings• Environment—nutrition and health• Body size and physical activity• Absence of the father in the home environment(menarche earlier for girls in these homes)• Quality of family relationships
    43. 43. The Adolescent Brain• Little evidence of “raging hormones” causingemotional problems• Neuronal pruning surges occurring• Prefrontal cortex last area to experiencepruning, which is responsible for executivecognitive functions (e.g., reasoning, planning,organizing)
    44. 44. Early vs. Late Maturation• Early maturation for girls carries greater risks(negative body image, teenage pregnancy,weight gain, embarrassment)• Can be advantageous for boys (popularity),but also carries risks (depression, drug use)
    45. 45. Social Development inAdolescence• Parent-child relationships overall positive,but conflict does increase during this time;this is seen as healthy as autonomyincreases• Friends and peers present more of aninfluence• Romantic relationships influencepsychological and social development inboth positive and negative ways
    46. 46. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory• Biological in belief that there are innatedrives to develop social relationships andthat these promote survival (Darwinism)• Divided life span into eight psychosocialstages, each associated with a differentdrive and a problem or crisis to resolve• Outcome of each stage varies along acontinuum from positive to negative
    47. 47. Stage 1 (Birth–1)Trust vs. Mistrust• Infants must rely on others for care• Consistent and dependable caregiving and meeting infant needsleads to a sense of trust• Infants who are not well cared for willdevelop mistrust
    48. 48. Stage 2 (1–3 years)Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt• Children are discovering their ownindependence• Those given the opportunity toexperience independence will gain asense of autonomy• Children that are overly restrained orpunished harshly will develop shameand doubt
    49. 49. Stage 3 (3–5 years)Initiative vs. Guilt• Children are exposed to the widersocial world and given greaterresponsibility• Sense of accomplishment leads toinitiative, whereas feelings of guiltcan emerge if the child is made tofeel too anxious or irresponsible
    50. 50. Stage 4 (5–12 years)Industry vs. Inferiority• Stage of life surrounding mastery ofknowledge and intellectual skills• Sense of competence andachievement leads to industry• Feeling incompetent andunproductive leads to inferiority
    51. 51. Stage 5 (Adolescence)Identity vs. Confusion• Developing a sense of who one isand where one is going in life• Successful resolution leads topositive identity• Unsuccessful resolution leads toidentity confusion or a negativeidentity
    52. 52. Stage 6 (Young adulthood)Intimacy vs. Isolation• Time for sharing oneself withanother person• Capacity to hold commitments withothers leads to intimacy• Failure to establish commitmentsleads to feelings of isolation
    53. 53. Stage 7 (Middle adulthood)Generativity vs. Stagnation• Caring for others in family, friends,and work leads to sense ofcontribution to later generations• Stagnation comes from a sense ofboredom and meaninglessness
    54. 54. Stage 8 (Late adulthood to Death)Integrity vs. Despair• Successful resolutions of all previouscrises leads to integrity and the abilityto see broad truths and advise those inearlier stages• Despair arises from feelings ofhelplessness and the bitter sense thatlife has been incomplete
    55. 55. Adult Development
    56. 56. Physical and Social• Genetics and lifestyle combine todetermine course of physical changes• Social development involves marriage andtransition to parenthood• Paths of adult social development arevaried and include diversity of lifestyles• Careers vary; dual career families morecommon
    57. 57. Median Age at First Marriage
    58. 58. Changing Structure of AmericanFamilies and Households
    59. 59. Late Adulthood• Life expectancy for men in the U.S. is 75,for women is 80.• Old age as a time of poor health, inactivity,and decline is a myth.• Decline in mental abilities is often becauseof lack of practice or experience• Activity theory of aging—life satisfaction ishighest when people maintain level ofactivity they had in earlier years
    60. 60. Death and Dying• In general, anxiety about dying tendsto decrease in late adulthood• Kubler-Ross stages of dying– Denial– Anger– Bargain– Depression– Acceptance• Not universally demonstrated