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Jim Crow
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  1. 1. BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Jim Crow Laws and background to segregation in the USA
  2. 2. TimelinePre 1860 –Legalised Slavery1860-1865 – Civil War (end of slavery but many attitudesremained the same)1865-1877 – Reconstruction At the bus station, Durham, North Carolina, 1940.Negros have the right to vote but 1900-1930 – Migrationare terrorized for doing so by Many blacks migrated North, making thegroups such as the KKK. Their racial question a national concern. Riotssituation is little better than and violence broke out. Blacks lived inslavery. poor conditions, unable to find high paid jobs.1877-1900 – ‘Jim Crow’ Laws 1930-1954 – Discrimination ChallengedEnforced segregation of blacks and Ghetto life in the North poor, howeverwhites (90% of blacks at this time there were more opportunities forlive in the South) widespread educational and economic progress.violence and intimidation Blacks were able to vote in the North and formed groups such as NAACP.
  3. 3. Why Did the Civil RightsMovement Take Off After 1945?•Black equality became a significant political issue for theDemocratic Party•WWII had been fought against racism abroad—hard tokeep harboring it at home•Black veterans came home dedicated to change•Increasing number of White Americans condemnedsegregation•Discrimination in the United States hurt our propagandabattle against the Communists
  4. 4. What were Jim Crow laws?From the 1880s into the 1960s, most American statesenforced segregation through "Jim Crow" laws (socalled after a black character in minstrel shows).From Delaware to California, and from North Dakotato Texas, many states (and cities, too) could imposelegal punishments on people for mingling withmembers of another race. The most common typesof laws forbade intermarriage and ordered businessowners and public institutions to keep blacks andwhites separated.
  5. 5. Some Facilities that Were Separate:Bus station waiting rooms andticket windowsRailroad cars or coachesRestaurants and lunch countersSchools and public parksRestrooms and water fountainsSections of movie theatersThere were even separatecemeteries Greyhound bus terminal, Memphis, Tennessee. 1943.
  6. 6. In your group answer thesequestions in one or twosentences.... What are the main areas of segregation? E.g. Education, public transport, marriage, etc.c Who do the laws target?t Do the laws change over time? Can you identify the change?g Summarize your state’s attitude towards coloured races.
  7. 7. ConclusionBy the 1950’s there wasstill widespread economic,social and politicaldiscrimination againstAfrican-Americans ,especially in the south.The Jim Crow Laws werean enabler of Beale Street, Memphis, Tennessee. 1939.discrimination. An increasingly educated and economically stable black populationNorthward migration had began to fight discrimination in theforced the issue of race 1950s.into a national problem.
  8. 8. A rest stop for bus passengers on the way fromLouisville, Kentucky to Nashville, Tennessee, with separate entrance for Blacks. 1943.
  9. 9. A sign at bus station, Rome, Georgia. 1943.
  10. 10. A highway sign advertising tourist cabins for Blacks, South Carolina. 1939.
  11. 11. Cafe, Durham, North Carolina. 1939.
  12. 12. Drinking fountain on the courthouse lawn, Halifax, North Carolina. 1938.
  13. 13. Movie theater’s "Colored" entrance, Belzoni, Mississippi. 1939.
  14. 14. The Rex theater for colored people, Leland, Mississippi. June 1937.
  15. 15. Restaurant, Lancaster, Ohio. 1938.
  16. 16. Water cooler in the street car terminal, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 1939.
  17. 17. Sign above movie theater, Waco, Texas. 1939.
  18. 18. BibliographyJohnson, Angela, ill. by Eric Velasquez. A Sweet Smell of Roses. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.McKissack, Patrica, ill. by Jerry Pinkney. Goin’ Someplace Special. New York: Atheneum, 2001.Miller, William, ill. by Cedric Lucas. Night Golf. New York: Lee & Low, 1999.Ringgold, Faith. If a Bus Could Talk: The Story of Rosa Parks. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.Weatherford, Carole Boston. A Negro League Scrapbook. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press, 2005.Weatherford, Carole Boston, ill. by Jerome Lagarrigue. Freedom on the Menu: The Greensboro Sit-Ins. New York: Dial, 2005.Weatherford, Carole Boston. Remember the Bridge: Poems of a People. New York: Philomel, 2002.Wiles, Deborah, ill. by Jerome Lagarrigue. Freedom Summer. New York: Atheneum, 2001.Woodson, Jacqueline, ill. by E. B. Lewis. The Other Side. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 2001.
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