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Practical Experiences of Multi-Operator Neutral Hosting James Body, TADSummit 2018

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Practical Experiences of Multi-Operator Neutral Hosting
James Body, CEO, Telet Research

At TADSummit last year we showed a demonstration of a cloud based cellular core that supports Multi Operator Neutral Host (MONEH) operation.

The past year has been eventful to say the least! In the Chalke Valley we’ve been extremely busy showing how our demonstration can be deployed as a scalable and cost effective solution for rural areas with little to no cellular coverage. This will result in some 50 to 70 smalls cells providing MONeH with mobile and fixed wireless broadband services in the 800MHz band (B20).

Sharing our experiences, in particular the challenges we faced to realize this network, and explain what is required to help make MONEH an everyday reality.

We'll then wrap-up with what we think the mobile landscape could be like in 5 years time given the rise of MONEH.

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Practical Experiences of Multi-Operator Neutral Hosting James Body, TADSummit 2018

  1. 1. Practical Experiences of Multi-Operator Neutral Hosting James Body Telet Research
  2. 2. My objective is to…... ...make setting up and using a Private LTE Network as easy as deploying a WiFi Access point…..
  3. 3. TAD Summit History The Challenge ● Following TAD Summit 2013 (Bangkok) it became apparent that in order to demo most of the TADS apps, some form of underlying network would be required ● ‘Bet you can’t do that!’ ● ‘Bet we CAN!’ Accomplishments ● 2014 (Istanbul) - First iteration - Truphone, Canonical, Telestax and Metaswitch ● 2015 (Lisbon) - added multiple network apps and demonstrated massive scalability/refactoring ● 2016 (Lisbon) - introduced RAN (using software defined radios
  4. 4. TAD Summit 2017 - Dangerous Demo The Objectives ● All existing components from previous Demos, PLUS: ● Add PRODUCTION READY 4G Radio Access Network (Accelleran) ● Add live IMS (SIP and DIAMETER) exchange with Public Mobile Networks ● Show full Multi Operator Neutral Host operation using audience phones as part of demo! Team Members ● ● ● ●
  5. 5. Telet Research Architectural Model
  6. 6. Building Solutions
  7. 7. How to build a mobile network (The traditional way) ● Buy from a traditional commercial vendor like Nokia, Ericsson, or Huawei ● You will need a lot of space, power, cooling and network connections ● A year or more to plan, build, commission, connect up, configure, etc. ● A large project team ● Expect to spend at least £6 million (usually considerably more)
  8. 8. How to build a mobile network (The modern way) ● Use general purpose computing platforms and use virtualisation ● Buy software from suppliers like Zynetic, Attocore, Quartus... ● You will need a little space, power, cooling and some network connections ● 6 months from plan to operate ● One or two people (plus suppliers) ● £250k-£500k ● Small Cells (Accelleran, etc.)
  9. 9. ● ●
  10. 10. IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Visited domain Home domain P-CSCF HSS I-CSCF SLF S-CSCF BGCF Application Server MGCF Media Gateway
  11. 11. PNO Private Network Operator
  12. 12. LTE (& 5G) networks are SO MUCH better than WiFi! But how can a ‘non-operators’ deploy and manage LTE that real people can use?
  13. 13. Drivers for Change Big problems are becoming less...
  14. 14. Software Based Networks The Demise of Proprietary Hardware Platforms Cloud based infrastructure offers ● Greatly reduced cost ● Shortened deployment times ● Massive scalability ● Rapid development/evolution AND Open Source - which *is* scalable, reliable and supportable!
  15. 15. Spectrum Spectrum used to be MAJOR Gating Factor for MNO entry ● Smart Shared Spectrum Management ○ LSA/DSA ○ Secondary use on non-interference basis ● Licence free operation (MuLTEFire) ● Operator Spectrum Leasing Cost/Availability of Spectrum directly linked to power levels/cell size
  16. 16. Licensed Shared Access (US) Dynamic Shared Access SAS - Spectrum Access System Cells report ● Location ● Operating Parameters ● What they can hear SAS issues Lease Like DHCP, but with blocks of spectrum rather than IP addresses
  17. 17. Spectrum - Detailed View ● DECT Guard Band (2 x 3.5 MHz) - 1800 MHz (Band 3) - Secured Today (UK/NL) ● Sub-licenced LTE 800 (2 x 30 MHz) - 800 MHz (Band 20) - Applied for secondary use on non-interference basis ● TDD Bands - due for imminent release - some if not all as Licenced Shared Access (LSA) or Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) ○ 2300 MHz (Band 40) - 40 MHz auctioned in UK Apr 18 Used in Ph.1 ○ 3400 MHz (Band 42) - Partially auctioned in UK Apr 18, Available in US ○ 3500 MHz (Band 43) - Release imminent in EU, Available in US ● Licence Free [MuLTEfire] (Band 46) - 5200 MHz (775 MHz - shared with WiFi) - Available today, but no support yet in User Equipments ● 700 MHz Band (Band 28) (2 x 30 MHz + 20 MHz SDL) - Release imminent
  18. 18. Identity and Authentication
  19. 19. The Subscriber Identity Module (or SIM) The SIM contains network-specific information used to authenticate and identify subscribers on the network. ● ICCID - integrated circuit card identifier ● IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity ● Authentication Key([s] (Ki), ● Local Area Identity (LAI) ● Plus carrier-specific data such as the ● SMSC (Short Message Service Center) number, ● Service Provider Name (SPN), ● Service Dialing Numbers (SDN), ● Advice-Of-Charge parameters and ● Value Added Service (VAS) applications
  20. 20. eSIM
  21. 21. Multi-IMSI SIMs Normally SIMs contain ONE IMSI and associated crypto key variables More sophisticated SIMs (such as those from Truphone®) contain multiple IMSIs (and possibly multiple sets of crypto keys) At any time only ONE IMSI is active Multiple user profiles (and phone numbers) can be mapped concurrently to the active IMSI
  22. 22. Further SIM Development Multi-IMSI/Multi-Crypto Key Variable SIMs allow authentication to be carried out by different Home Subscriber Servers (HSS) The signalling channel (always on and always free) can be used for independant comms between SIM and mobile network core SIM Socket - micro web browser on SIM Apps running on SIM independant of handset SIM based Blockchain!
  23. 23. What does 5G offer us? Trade offs between ● Bandwidth ● Latency ● Power/Range
  24. 24. 4G Revenues ● Conventional billing methods do not fit ● Trade offs between bandwidth + latency + power ● Operators charging for QoS ● Need solution that scales down to cater for micro operators
  25. 25. ● Local Roaming (Other MNOs) ● Domestic Comms Packages ● Network Slices and Applications Revenue CH4LKE Mobile
  26. 26. IMS - IP Multimedia Subsystem
  27. 27. ● First iteration of the Dangerous Demo Mobile Network ● Components from Truphone, Canonical, TeleStax and Metaswitch ● Demonstrated how to build a Mobile Network using Open Source code Istanbul - 2014
  28. 28. ● Mix of hybrid cloud and mobile edge computing ● Added Radio Access Network (Lime Microsystems SDR) ● Mystery Masked Man detector!
  29. 29. ● All of previous demos, plus ● Dedicated radio (Accelleran) ● With embedded EPC (Quortus) ● MONeH Operation ● Multi-IMSI SIMs 2017 - Lisbon
  30. 30. 2015 - Lisbon ● Much larger Dangerous Demo ● Showed multiple applications running on platform ● Massive scalability (100k concurrent calls by end of demo) ●
  31. 31. IMS = SIP + DIAMETER
  32. 32. Other Obstacles Commercial and Procedural Challenges
  33. 33. Rural Not Spots Resolving the Digital Divide
  34. 34. The Chalke Valley - AONB
  35. 35. Confidential
  36. 36. Map of the Chalke Valley: Biggest UK Not Spot
  37. 37. Phase 1 Test Bed Sites
  38. 38. Confidential
  39. 39. Confidential Deployed CH4LKE Infrastructure 43
  40. 40. Confidential
  41. 41. Kamailio as an IMS Core • Great foundation for all “pure” SIP-Components: – Proxy-CSCF, Interrogating-CSCF, Serving-CSCF – And all other “SIP-only” Components • Diameter Servers (no SIP involved!): – HSS, Charging, S6a Concentrator • Applications: – Telephony Services (Call-Forwarding, Barring, SMS, …)
  42. 42. Kamailio as an IMS Core (3) Kamailio Deployments worldwide: • Biggest, known deployment: 1&1 in Germany, with more than 4 Mio subscribers • Other big deployments: Truphone, Flowroute, and many, many more • IMS Deployments: – Currently ~200.000 subscribers (native VoLTE, OTT App on 3 continents) – Various Lab deployments and PoC
  43. 43. Defining the ‘Not-spot’ ● Not-Spots – areas where there is currently no coverage available ● Partial Not-Spots - areas which have coverage from some but not all of the 4 major mobile networks Technology and Band Signal Threshold 2G - GSM [900/1800 MHz] -93 dBm 3G - UMTS [2100 MHz] -103 dBm 4G - LTE [800 MHz] -115 dBm 5G IoT - IoT-NB [800 MHz] -135 dBm Note: Signal thresholds measured outside buildings
  44. 44. Questions
  45. 45. Fixed Telephony 1999 ● BIG Switches are the norm ● Nortel, Avaya, Ericsson, Siemens ● Signalling System 7 (SS7) ● Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN)
  46. 46. Fixed Telephony 1999 ● BIG Switches are the norm ● Nortel, Avaya, Ericsson, Siemens ● Signalling System 7 (SS7) ● Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) ● Voice over IP is new and exciting!
  47. 47. Fixed Telephony 1999 ● BIG Switches are the norm ● Nortel, Avaya, Ericsson, Siemens ● Signalling System 7 (SS7) ● Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) ● Voice over IP is new and exciting! ● Mark Spencer starts Asterisk
  48. 48. Fixed Telephony 1999 ● BIG Switches are the norm ● Nortel, Avaya, Ericsson, Siemens ● Signalling System 7 (SS7) ● Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) ● Voice over IP is new and exciting! ● Mark Spencer starts Asterisk Mobile Telephony ● 2G Networks widespread and making HUGE profits ● First 3G Network deployments ● Investment required to start a MNO is HUNDREDS of millions ● First MVNOs introduced
  49. 49. Fixed Telephony 2017 ● BIG ISDN Switches are gone ● Nortel, Avaya, Ericsson, Siemens gone ● Signalling System 7 (SS7) - creaking and vulnerable ● Voice over IP is a commodity ● Asterisk (and other Open Source Projects) are widespread ● Number of fixed User Equipments declining
  50. 50. Fixed Telephony 2017 ● BIG ISDN Switches are gone ● Nortel, Avaya, Ericsson, Siemens gone ● Signalling System 7 (SS7) - creaking and vulnerable ● Voice over IP is a commodity ● Asterisk (and other Open Source Projects) are widespread ● Number of fixed User Equipments declining Mobile Telephony ● Mobile communications dominate marketplace ● 4G Networks deployed, 5G starting ● Many new MVNOs, very few new MNOs ● First MVNOs introduced ● Data traffic (driven by apps) dominates traffic ● Multi-sensor, location aware, touch screen graphical terminals with multi-band capability and massive power efficient processors ● The first PNO(s)

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