Research Methods


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Research Methods

  1. 1. Definition of Terms
  2. 2. Definition of Terms <ul><li>Definition of Terms is necessary in research in order for the researcher and the reader to be thinking in terms of the same thing. </li></ul>Definition of important concepts to use in research makes these terms precise in the sense that no two individuals would associate two different meanings to them.
  3. 3. Defining terms is of great concern because… <ul><li>You yourself should completely grasp what you mean by the words you use </li></ul><ul><li>You should be able to communicate successfully to your readers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. TYPES OF Definition <ul><li>CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also known as constitutive; is that which is given in dictionaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the academic or universal meaning attributed to a word or group of words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is mostly abtract and formal in nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OPERATIONAL DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as functional definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TWO FORMS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured Operational Definition states the way the concept is measured in the investigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Experimental Operational Definition , the researcher may spell out the details of the manipulation of a variable. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. EXAMPLES <ul><li>Instructor : a person who teaches or gives information. In this study, this term has been used to include all teachers teaching collegiate courses from the rank of assistant instructor to professor. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Intellective factors : it is the non-cognitive components or determiners of performance (Good, 1959). In this study, non-intellective factors used as possible correlates of scholastic achievement are socio-economic status, study habits and attitudes, study orientation, 11 occupational interests and 16 personality factors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ACTIVITY <ul><li>Pick out one term from your topic and define it using a conceptual and operational definition. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The variable
  8. 8. variable <ul><li>A variable is a characteristic that has two or more mutually exclusive values or properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Variables are constructs or properties being investigated (Kerlinger, 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>If you observe that there is only one characteristic in the participants that you are studying, this characteristic is not a variable but rather a constant. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Setting your variables <ul><li>Which among the characteristics or measures do you intend to be your outcome or objective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This question asks for the CRITERION VARIABLE or DEPENDENT VARIABLE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What characteristics or conditions will make the outcome or objective vary or differ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This question asks for the VARIATE or INDEPENDENT VARIABLE </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES <ul><li>Some sources describe the independent variable as the CAUSE and the dependent variable as the RESULT . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When there is grouping in a study, the independent variable is the basis on which the grouping is made. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is what is measured after grouping at the end of the study. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The dependent variable is the object of the investigation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. TYPES OF VARIABLE <ul><li>Dependent or Criterion variable: is the outcome or objective of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Variate or Independent variable: is that property or characteristic that makes the outcome or objective vary or differ. </li></ul><ul><li>** A variable that is dependent in one investigation may be independent in another. </li></ul>
  12. 12. TYPES OF INDEPENDENT VARIABLES <ul><li>Non-manipulable variables : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>factors such as sex, mental ability, socio-economic status, aptitude, race and age are examples. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are non-manipulable because their status cannot be changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are also called assigned, organismic, classificatory or attribute. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manipulable variables : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>variables such as reinforcement, method, use of instructional materials, use of feedback and others are manipulable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are also called active variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is the possibility of randomly assigning individuals or group. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Exercise: Identify the dependent and independent variables <ul><li>The Effect of a Training Program on the Visual Sequential Memory of Deaf Children </li></ul><ul><li>Age, Sex, IQ and Entrance Examination Scores on Certain Piagetian Tasks of Manila Science High School Students </li></ul><ul><li>The Effects of Integrating Science and Mathematics and Varying the Pace of Learning on Science Achievement of Pupils and Their Attitude Towards the Individualized Set-Up </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theory and the review of the related literature
  15. 15. theory <ul><li>Definition of Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations amog varibales, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena (Kerlinger, 1973). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory links your topic to an available body of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>In search of the theory, you gather information mostly from the related of literature </li></ul>
  16. 16. Functions of theory <ul><li>It identifies the start for the research problem by presenting the gaps, weak points, and inconsistencies in the previous researches. </li></ul><ul><li>It puts together all the constructs or concepts that are related with the researcher’s topic. </li></ul><ul><li>It presents the relationships among variables that have been investigated. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The review of related literature <ul><li>The review of related literature involves the systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem </li></ul>
  18. 18. Functions of review of related literature <ul><li>It provides the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides you with the information about the past researches related to the intended study. This process prevents unintentional duplication of these past researches and leads you into what needs to be investigated. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives you the feeling of confidence since by means of review of related literature you will have on hand all constructs related to your study. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Functions of review of related literature <ul><li>It gives you information about the research methods used, the population and sampling considered, the instruments used in gathering the data, and the statistical computation in previous research. The related literature can answer all the questions that you need to ask related to the foregoing stages in research. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides findings and conslusions of past investigations which you may relate to your own findings and conclusions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. kinds of related literature <ul><li>Research literature refers to the published or unpublished reports of actual research studies done previously. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual literature pertains to articles or books written by authorities giving their opinions, experiences, theories or ideas of what is good and bad, desirable and undesirable within the problem area. </li></ul>
  21. 21. about review of related literature… <ul><li>The library is usually the source of both conceptual and research literature. </li></ul><ul><li>A good tip for you is to be ready to spend the whole day or even days in the library. Flitting visits to the library will not give you beneficial results. </li></ul><ul><li>Fox (1969) suggests that you start reviewing conceptual literature first since it is more readily available than research literature. </li></ul><ul><li>The card catalog is to a library as the index is to a book. However, there are varied kinds of indexes that can help you get access to information. </li></ul><ul><li>Theses and dissertations, as well as abstracts, are other sources of the literature. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reviewing research literature <ul><li>Demonstrate a critical and evaluative mind in judging the profitability of the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline important areas of the investigation on an index card, one source to a card. </li></ul><ul><li>Note down specific techniques to get insights on what you will do on your own thesis. Pay attention to sampling procedures, instruments used and statistical tools employed. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the results, conclusions and recommendations. You can accumulate gaps and inconsistencies among the constructs you are reviewing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Guide questions in Reviewing research literature <ul><li>Do you think that the problem questions stated in the study you are reviewing are researchable? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the hypotheses lend themselves to testing? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the accumulated literature indicate gaps and inconsistencies which the researcher of the thesis hopes to fill? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the variables adequately described? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Guide questions in Reviewing research literature <ul><li>What data gathering instruments have been used? Are they reliable and valid tools? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the target and sampling populations presented? </li></ul><ul><li>Were the hypotheses tested and correctly interpreted? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the results logical? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the conclusions and recommendations data-based? </li></ul>
  25. 25. ACTIVITY <ul><li>Library Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to the library and search for literatures related to your topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do outlining of important areas of your research (1 index card/area). Write your outline on one 5x8 index card , include the reference where you got your research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe proper bibliography format when writing your reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass a minimum of 5 and maximum of 10 index cards. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. dEFINITION <ul><li>Framework : skeletal or structural frame </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical : relating to or having the characteristics of theory. </li></ul><ul><li>THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK : set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis of the research problem </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Three styles of presenting the theoretical framework <ul><li>STYLE NO. 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The theoretical framework is integrated with the problem in Chapter 1 of the thesis report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no Review of Related Literature as a separate chapter but it is incorporated in Chapter 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The term Theoretical or Conceptual Framework may or may not be labeled in this chapter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This design is also known as journalistic style </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Three styles of presenting the theoretical framework <ul><li>STYLE NO. 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The theoretical framework is included in Chapter 1 and labelled as such. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a separate chapter for the Review and Related Literature </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Three styles of presenting the theoretical framework <ul><li>STYLE NO. 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The usual contents of Chapter 1 are presented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 2 consists of the Related Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The theoretical framework is labelled at the end of chapter two. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is understood here that the related literature is already part of the theoretical or conceptual framework. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. ACTIVITY <ul><li>Library Work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to the library and photocopy at least one sample each of different styles of theoretical and conceptual framework from theses. </li></ul></ul>