What Is Leadership?managementUse of authority inherent indesignated formal rank toobtain compliance fromorganizational members
I. Trait Theories Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge
Trait TheoriesLimitations:• No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations.• Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
II. Behavioral Theories • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
3. The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) 1,9 pattern 9,9 pattern “Country club” Team management- environment the ideal style (high) 9 Concern for People 8 7 6 5,5 pattern Middle-of-the-road 5 management 4 3 2 9,1 pattern 1,1 pattern 1 Task managementimpoverished management (low) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (high) Concern for Production
The Leadership Grid High 1,9 9,9 Country Club Management Team Management 8 Thoughtful attention to the needs Work accomplishment is from of the people for satisfying committed people; 7 relationships leads to a interdependence through a comfortable, friendly organization “common stake” in organizationConcern for People 6 atmosphere and work tempo purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect Middle-of-the-road Management 5 5,5 Adequate organization performance is possible through 4 balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. 3 Impoverished Management Authority-Compliance Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required Efficiency in operations results from arranging 2 work done is appropriate to sustain conditions of work in such a way that human organization membership. elements interfere to a minimum degree 1 1,1 9,1 Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low Concern for Results High
III. Contingency Theories of Leadership• Contingency theory of leadership assumes that there is no one best way to lead. Effective leadership depends on the leader’s and follower’s characteristics as well as other factors in the leadership situation.
CONTINGENCY THEORIES• All Consider the Situation – Fiedler’s Contingency Model – Cognitive Resource Theory – Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model – Path Goal Theory Assumptions underlying the different models: Fiedler: Leader’s style is fixed Other’s: Leader’s style can and should be changed
Central Features of the Contingency Theory of Leadership Best way: there is no one best way to lead. Leadership style: Different leadership styles are appropriate for different situations. Middle ground: The contingency theory stresses the views that (a) there is some middle ground between the existence of universal principles of leadership that fit all situations and (b) each situation is unique and therefore must be studied and treated as unique.
Central Features of the Contingency Theory of Leadership (Cont.) Focus: The contingency theories of leadership we study focus on three variables: (a) leader’s style; (b) follower’s motivation and skill; and (c) the nature of the task. Adaptability of leadership style: For an individual leader, this theory assumes that leadership is changeable and should be variable for different situations.
1. Fiedler Model• Leader: Style is Fixed (Task oriented vs. Relationship oriented)• Considers Situational Favorableness for Leader – Leader-member relations – Task structure – Position power Key Assumption – Leader must fit situation; options to accomplish this: – Select leader to fit situation – Change situation to fit leader
Fiedler’s Model: The LeaderAssumption: Leader’s Style is Fixed & Canbe Measured by the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) QuestionnaireLeast Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)QuestionnaireThe way in which a leader willevaluate a co-worker that is notliked will indicate whether theleader is task- or relationship-oriented.
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the SituationLeader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respectsubordinates have in their leader.Task StructureThe degree to which the job assignments areprocedurized.Position PowerInfluence derived from one’s formal structuralposition in the organization; includes power to hire,fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
2. Hersey and Blanchard’sSituational Leadership Theory s n es ng w illi d y an ilit : ab ess d in r ea w er llo Fo Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision
Situational Leadership Theory - the most effective leadership style depends on the extent to which followers require guidance, direction, and emotional support (i.e., the readiness of the followers to do the job) - four leadership styles - e.g., telling the most appropriate style when followers lack readiness (have little job knowledge or willingness to work without taking direction) (amount of support required) High Participating Selling Relationship behavior Delegating Telling Telling Low Low High Task behaviors (direct behavior)
Path-Goal Theory - subordinates are motivated by a leader only to the extent they perceive this individual as helping them to attain valued goals - effective leadership determined by complex interaction of leader behaviors, subordinate characteristics, and aspects of the work environment Characteristics of subordinates • Ability • Personality Leader’s behavior • Instrumental Progress • High performance • Supportive toward • High satisfaction • Participative goal • Achievement oriented Aspects of the work environment • Task structure • formal authority
House’s Path-Goal Theory• A contingency model of leadership proposing the effective leaders can motivate subordinates by: 1. Clearly identifying the outcomes workers are trying to obtain from their jobs. 2. Rewarding workers for high-performance and goal attainment with the outcomes they desire 3. Clarifying the paths to the attainment of the goals, remove obstacles to performance, and express confidence in worker’s ability.
Motivating with Path-Goal• Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors: – Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things. – Supportive behavior: look out for the worker’s best interest. – Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them. – Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities.• Which behavior to be used depends on the nature of the subordinates and the tasks.
Cognitive Resource Theory Research Support: • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
Types of Leadership Style• Autocratic: – Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else – High degree of dependency on the leader – Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff – May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
Types of Leadership Style• Democratic: Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation – Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken – Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct
Types of Leadership Style• Democratic: – May help motivation and involvement – Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas – Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business – Can delay decision making
Types of Leadership Style• Laissez-Faire: – ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all – Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important – Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life – Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction – Relies on good team work – Relies on good interpersonal relations
Types of Leadership Style• Paternalistic: Leader acts as a ‘father figure’ Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult Believes in the need to support staff
Role and activities of leadership• Interpersonal role• Informational role• Communication• Traditional management• Human resource management• Networking