What Is Leadership?managementUse of authority inherent indesignated formal rank toobtain compliance fromorganizational mem...
I. Trait Theories         Leadership Traits:         • Ambition and energy         • The desire to lead         • Honesty ...
Trait TheoriesLimitations:• No universal traits that predict leadership  in all situations.• Traits predict behavior bette...
II. Behavioral Theories   • Trait theory:     Leaders are born, not made.   • Behavioral theory:     Leadership traits can...
1. Ohio State Studies
2. University of Michigan Studies
3. The Managerial Grid                                            (Blake and Mouton)                  1,9 pattern         ...
The Leadership Grid       High 1,9                                                                                        ...
4. Scandinavian Studies
III. Contingency Theories of Leadership• Contingency theory of leadership assumes  that there is no one best way to lead. ...
CONTINGENCY THEORIES• All Consider the Situation   –   Fiedler’s Contingency Model   –   Cognitive Resource Theory   –   H...
Central Features of the Contingency Theory                of Leadership Best way: there is no one best way to lead. Lead...
Central Features of the Contingency Theory            of Leadership (Cont.) Focus: The contingency theories of leadership...
1. Fiedler Model• Leader: Style is Fixed (Task oriented vs.  Relationship oriented)• Considers Situational Favorableness f...
Fiedler’s Model: The LeaderAssumption: Leader’s Style is Fixed & Canbe Measured by the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Que...
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the           SituationLeader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respectsubord...
Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency ModelTask-oriented style       Relationships-oriented      Task-oriented style           ...
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of           Leadership                             Figure 13.2
Findings fromFiedler Model
2. Hersey and Blanchard’sSituational Leadership Theory                                                             s      ...
Situational Leadership Theory - the most effective leadership style depends        on the extent to which followers requir...
3. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Leader-Member Exchange        Theory
4. The Path-Goal Theory (Robert            House)
Path-Goal Theory - subordinates are motivated by a leader only to the extent      they perceive this individual as helping...
House’s Path-Goal Theory• A contingency model of leadership proposing the  effective leaders can motivate subordinates by:...
Motivating with Path-Goal• Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors:  – Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks...
Cognitive Resource Theory            Research Support:            • Less intelligent individuals              perform bett...
Types of Leadership Style• Autocratic:   – Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone     else   – High degree of ...
Types of Leadership Style• Democratic:  Encourages decision making  from different perspectives – leadership may be  empha...
Types of Leadership Style• Democratic:  – May help motivation and involvement  – Workers feel ownership of the firm and it...
Types of Leadership Style• Laissez-Faire:   – ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities     are shared by all   – Can ...
Types of Leadership Style• Paternalistic:  Leader acts as a ‘father figure’  Paternalistic leader makes decision but may  ...
Role and activities of leadership•   Interpersonal role•   Informational role•   Communication•   Traditional management• ...
Leadership
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Leadership

  1. 1. What Is Leadership?managementUse of authority inherent indesignated formal rank toobtain compliance fromorganizational members
  2. 2. I. Trait Theories Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge
  3. 3. Trait TheoriesLimitations:• No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations.• Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
  4. 4. II. Behavioral Theories • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
  5. 5. 1. Ohio State Studies
  6. 6. 2. University of Michigan Studies
  7. 7. 3. The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) 1,9 pattern 9,9 pattern “Country club” Team management- environment the ideal style (high) 9 Concern for People 8 7 6 5,5 pattern Middle-of-the-road 5 management 4 3 2 9,1 pattern 1,1 pattern 1 Task managementimpoverished management (low) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (high) Concern for Production
  8. 8. The Leadership Grid High 1,9 9,9 Country Club Management Team Management 8 Thoughtful attention to the needs Work accomplishment is from of the people for satisfying committed people; 7 relationships leads to a interdependence through a comfortable, friendly organization “common stake” in organizationConcern for People 6 atmosphere and work tempo purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect Middle-of-the-road Management 5 5,5 Adequate organization performance is possible through 4 balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. 3 Impoverished Management Authority-Compliance Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required Efficiency in operations results from arranging 2 work done is appropriate to sustain conditions of work in such a way that human organization membership. elements interfere to a minimum degree 1 1,1 9,1 Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low Concern for Results High
  9. 9. 4. Scandinavian Studies
  10. 10. III. Contingency Theories of Leadership• Contingency theory of leadership assumes that there is no one best way to lead. Effective leadership depends on the leader’s and follower’s characteristics as well as other factors in the leadership situation.
  11. 11. CONTINGENCY THEORIES• All Consider the Situation – Fiedler’s Contingency Model – Cognitive Resource Theory – Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model – Path Goal Theory Assumptions underlying the different models: Fiedler: Leader’s style is fixed Other’s: Leader’s style can and should be changed
  12. 12. Central Features of the Contingency Theory of Leadership Best way: there is no one best way to lead. Leadership style: Different leadership styles are appropriate for different situations. Middle ground: The contingency theory stresses the views that (a) there is some middle ground between the existence of universal principles of leadership that fit all situations and (b) each situation is unique and therefore must be studied and treated as unique.
  13. 13. Central Features of the Contingency Theory of Leadership (Cont.) Focus: The contingency theories of leadership we study focus on three variables: (a) leader’s style; (b) follower’s motivation and skill; and (c) the nature of the task. Adaptability of leadership style: For an individual leader, this theory assumes that leadership is changeable and should be variable for different situations.
  14. 14. 1. Fiedler Model• Leader: Style is Fixed (Task oriented vs. Relationship oriented)• Considers Situational Favorableness for Leader – Leader-member relations – Task structure – Position power Key Assumption – Leader must fit situation; options to accomplish this: – Select leader to fit situation – Change situation to fit leader
  15. 15. Fiedler’s Model: The LeaderAssumption: Leader’s Style is Fixed & Canbe Measured by the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) QuestionnaireLeast Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)QuestionnaireThe way in which a leader willevaluate a co-worker that is notliked will indicate whether theleader is task- or relationship-oriented.
  16. 16. Fiedler’s Model: Defining the SituationLeader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respectsubordinates have in their leader.Task StructureThe degree to which the job assignments areprocedurized.Position PowerInfluence derived from one’s formal structuralposition in the organization; includes power to hire,fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
  17. 17. Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency ModelTask-oriented style Relationships-oriented Task-oriented style considerate style Favorable leadership Situation intermediate Unfavorable leadership situation situation
  18. 18. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Figure 13.2
  19. 19. Findings fromFiedler Model
  20. 20. 2. Hersey and Blanchard’sSituational Leadership Theory s n es ng w illi d y an ilit : ab ess d in r ea w er llo Fo Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision
  21. 21. Situational Leadership Theory - the most effective leadership style depends on the extent to which followers require guidance, direction, and emotional support (i.e., the readiness of the followers to do the job) - four leadership styles - e.g., telling the most appropriate style when followers lack readiness (have little job knowledge or willingness to work without taking direction) (amount of support required) High Participating Selling Relationship behavior Delegating Telling Telling Low Low High Task behaviors (direct behavior)
  22. 22. 3. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
  23. 23. Leader-Member Exchange Theory
  24. 24. 4. The Path-Goal Theory (Robert House)
  25. 25. Path-Goal Theory - subordinates are motivated by a leader only to the extent they perceive this individual as helping them to attain valued goals - effective leadership determined by complex interaction of leader behaviors, subordinate characteristics, and aspects of the work environment Characteristics of subordinates • Ability • Personality Leader’s behavior • Instrumental Progress • High performance • Supportive toward • High satisfaction • Participative goal • Achievement oriented Aspects of the work environment • Task structure • formal authority
  26. 26. House’s Path-Goal Theory• A contingency model of leadership proposing the effective leaders can motivate subordinates by: 1. Clearly identifying the outcomes workers are trying to obtain from their jobs. 2. Rewarding workers for high-performance and goal attainment with the outcomes they desire 3. Clarifying the paths to the attainment of the goals, remove obstacles to performance, and express confidence in worker’s ability.
  27. 27. Motivating with Path-Goal• Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors: – Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things. – Supportive behavior: look out for the worker’s best interest. – Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them. – Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities.• Which behavior to be used depends on the nature of the subordinates and the tasks.
  28. 28. Cognitive Resource Theory Research Support: • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
  29. 29. Types of Leadership Style• Autocratic: – Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else – High degree of dependency on the leader – Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff – May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
  30. 30. Types of Leadership Style• Democratic: Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation – Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken – Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct
  31. 31. Types of Leadership Style• Democratic: – May help motivation and involvement – Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas – Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business – Can delay decision making
  32. 32. Types of Leadership Style• Laissez-Faire: – ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all – Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important – Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life – Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction – Relies on good team work – Relies on good interpersonal relations
  33. 33. Types of Leadership Style• Paternalistic: Leader acts as a ‘father figure’ Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult Believes in the need to support staff
  34. 34. Role and activities of leadership• Interpersonal role• Informational role• Communication• Traditional management• Human resource management• Networking

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