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  1. 1. HTM 2118 Hospitality and Culture Japan 日本(にほん NIHON ) Christy 09232967D Jacqueline 09218686D Hei 09178654D Phoebe 09242986D
  2. 2. General Information <ul><li>Flag </li></ul><ul><li>official name in Japanese is Nisshoki ( 日章旗 , &quot;sun flag&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>more commonly known as Hinomaru ( 日の丸 , &quot;sun circle&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>white = holy, peaceful, pure and just </li></ul><ul><li>red =sincere, passionate, power and universal love </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>WWI </li></ul><ul><li>World War I enabled Japan joined the side of the victorious Allies </li></ul><ul><li> expand its influence and territorial holdings </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. occupying Manchuria in 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of international condemnation for this occupation </li></ul><ul><li> Japan resigned from the League of Nations in 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1937, Japan invaded other parts of China, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) </li></ul><ul><li> after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Influence: devote lots of money in military development ,but poor living among people </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>WW2 </li></ul><ul><li>On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States naval base in Pearl Harbor and declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li> surrender of all Japanese forces on August 15 </li></ul><ul><li>The war cost millions of lives and left much of the country's industry and infrastructure destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Influence : historical ruins left behind can boost historical tourism </li></ul> Fire of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 57 th anniversary 
  5. 5. History <ul><li>Post-war </li></ul><ul><li>1947 adopted a new pacifist constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices </li></ul><ul><li>1952 The Allied occupation ended by the Treaty of San Francisco </li></ul><ul><li>After 1952 , respect and love American products and have good relationship with America as they regard Americans are superior after they defeated Japan </li></ul><ul><li>1956 granted membership in the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>later achieved spectacular growth to become the second largest economy in the world, with an annual growth rate averaging 10% for four decades </li></ul><ul><li>economic miracle ended in the mid-1990s when Japan suffered a major recession </li></ul>
  6. 6. Geography <ul><li>over three thousand islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu </li></ul><ul><li>About 70% to 80% of the country is forested, mountainous and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial or residential use </li></ul><ul><li>extremely high population density located in coastal areas </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geography <ul><li>Located on the Pacific Ring of Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent low-intensity vibrations and occasional volcanic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Destructive earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunamis </li></ul><ul><li>Influence: </li></ul><ul><li>Costs--death , property loss </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits--beautiful scenery (volcanoes , hot spring) create tourist spots and boost environmental tourism </li></ul>
  8. 8. Language <ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>written with a combination of three different types of scripts </li></ul><ul><li>modified Chinese characters called kanji ( 漢字 ) </li></ul><ul><li>hiragana ( ひらがな or 平仮名 )  </li></ul><ul><li>katakana ( カタカナ or 片仮名 ) OR Latin alphabet, romaji ( ローマ字 )  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Language <ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary heavily influenced by other languages </li></ul><ul><li>Different regions may have different accents </li></ul><ul><li>Shorten the form of greetings </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li> Good morning --- 「 お はようございま す 」「おす」 </li></ul><ul><li> Thank you --- 「 あ りがとうご ざ いま す 」「あざす」 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Language <ul><li>Non-Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Bowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boys and men :back straight and hands at the sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>girls and women : clasped in the lap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with the eyes down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the longer and deeper the bow, the stronger the emotion and the respect expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most respectful bow saikeirei ( 最敬礼 ): a kneeling bow is performed; this bow is sometimes so deep that the forehead touches the floor </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Language <ul><li>Non-Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony </li></ul><ul><li>children are taught to act harmoniously and cooperatively with others from the time they go to pre-school </li></ul><ul><li>harmonious relationships between people is reflected in much Japanese behavior </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. facts that might be disagreeable in a gentle and indirect response </li></ul>
  12. 12. Visual Arts Japanese painting ( 絵画 Kaiga ) Sculpture Ikebana ( 生け花  , arranged flower ) Syodou (書道 , ‘the way of writing or calligraphy’ or more commonly known as ‘Shuji’ ( 習字 ) ‘learning how to write characters’ )
  13. 13. Performing Arts <ul><li>Kabuki ( 歌舞伎 , &quot;the art of singing and dancing&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>sing ( 歌 ), dance ( 舞 ), and skill ( 伎 ) </li></ul>Tokyo Kabukiza Kyoto Minamiza
  14. 14. Performing Arts <ul><li>Noh ( 能 No, or Nogaku ( 能楽 ) is a major form of classical Japanese musical Drama) </li></ul><ul><li>A Noh performance often lasts all day </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on tradition rather than innovation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Performing Arts <ul><li>Bunraku ( 文楽 ), also known as Ningyo joruri ( 人形浄瑠璃 ) </li></ul><ul><li>a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater </li></ul>
  16. 16. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Sadou (茶道 , the way of tea ) </li></ul><ul><li>Chakai -simple course of hospitality that includes the service of confections, mild tea, and perhaps a light meal </li></ul><ul><li>Chaji -more formal gathering usually including a full-course meal called kaiseki, followed by confections, strong tea , and mild tea. A chaji may last up to four hours </li></ul>
  17. 17. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Sumo ( 相撲 ) </li></ul><ul><li>considered as national sport </li></ul><ul><li>Judo ( 柔道 , meaning &quot;gentle way“) </li></ul><ul><li>originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century </li></ul>
  18. 18. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Kendo ( 剣道 , meaning Way of the sword) </li></ul><ul><li>a way to discipline the human character through the application of the principles of the Katana </li></ul><ul><li>Karate ( 空手 , a martial art) </li></ul><ul><li>from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpo and further developed in Japan </li></ul>
  19. 19. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese culture is pure ,not affected by changing of time </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese place high priority on cultural conservation and appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Japan absorbs other countries’ traditional cultures , maximizes their value and preserves these uniqueness ,makes them popular and spread around the world </li></ul>
  20. 20. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Animation and Comics </li></ul><ul><li>a manga superpower </li></ul><ul><li>the world’s largest exporter of comics and animation </li></ul><ul><li>very popular and influential from the 1980s to the present in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>almost all Asian nations have their own editions of Japanese comics and their televisions show Japanese animated series on a daily basis </li></ul>
  21. 21. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>comic café ( manga kissha ), comic rental, dojinshi (amateurish manga ) and cosplay (costume play), have penetrated the consumer culture in major Asian cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian businessmen also make use of Japanese cartoon characters e.g.Hello Kitty, Doraemon to promote their products or services. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese manga has played a role in changing the youth culture and the people’s perception of Japan in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong and Taiwan, two consumption centers of Japanese comics and animation in Asia </li></ul>
  22. 22. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Akihabara ( 秋葉原 ) (&quot;Field of Autumn Leaves&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>known as Akihabara Electric Town ( 秋葉原電気街 Akihabara Denki Gai) </li></ul><ul><li>a major shopping area for electronic, computer, anime, and otaku goods, including new and used items </li></ul><ul><li>presence of “Maid Cafe” ,girls wearing costumes of maid and serve in a café </li></ul>
  23. 23. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Japanese dramas ( テレビドラマ terebi dorama , television drama), also called dorama ( ドラマ ) </li></ul><ul><li>stories of teenage violence, child abuse, and modern family life </li></ul><ul><li>Famous Japanese television station based in Daiba known as Fuji TV </li></ul><ul><li>Daiba in the late 1990s became a tourist and leisure zone after Fuji Television moved their headquarters to the island </li></ul><ul><li>then transportation links improved, and thus the establishments of several large hotels and shopping malls </li></ul>
  24. 24. Traditional/Popular Culture and Entertainment <ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Making cultural pilgrimages to Japan </li></ul><ul><li> emergency of pop-culture tourism </li></ul><ul><li> Japan travel boom </li></ul><ul><li>-visit famous places featured in dramas </li></ul><ul><li>-buy latest fashion, ACG products </li></ul><ul><li>-attend live concerts, Comic Market </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of self-guided tourism </li></ul><ul><li> greater flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Changing itinerary of package tours in Japan </li></ul><ul><li> past: major attractions were historic and natural sites e.g. mountain, temples, shrines </li></ul><ul><li> now: major attractions are places e.g. theme parks, shopping arcades </li></ul>
  25. 25. Etiquette <ul><li>governs the expectations of social behavior in the country </li></ul><ul><li>considered very important </li></ul><ul><li>some customs may be very regional practices </li></ul><ul><li>may not exist in all regions of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Some customs have changed over the course of history </li></ul>
  26. 26. Etiquette <ul><li>Visiting Someone’s House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an honor to be invited to one's home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wooden geta are provided for short walks outside when entering the house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polite to wear shoes instead of sandals, but sandal wearers may carry a pair of white socks to put over their bare feet or stockings </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Etiquette <ul><ul><li>shoes are turned around so that the toe faces the door after taking them off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take off hat or coats before the host opens the door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when guest is leaving, he or she does not put on the coat or hat until the door has closed </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Etiquette <ul><li>Mobile Phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very common in Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of mobile phones on public transport is not allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cannot make calls and have to switch their phones to silent mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>made e-mailing from cell phones (SMS) extremely popular among people of all ages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Etiquette <ul><li>Trains </li></ul><ul><li>cannot talk too loud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>should turn the phone on silent-mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women-only cars are available in rush-hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>courtesy seats are very common ie. give seat to old people & handicapped people is highly encouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>putting on make-up is not allowed </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cuisine <ul><li>Dining Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>meals is traditionally begin with the phrase itadakimasu ( いただきます ) (I humbly receive) </li></ul><ul><li>upon finishing a meal, the Japanese also use the polite phrase Gochisosama-deshita ( ごちそうさま - でした ) (Thank you for good meal) </li></ul><ul><li>it is considered polite to clear one's plate, even to the last grain of rice </li></ul><ul><li>impolite to pick out certain ingredients and leave the rest </li></ul>
  31. 31. Clothing <ul><li>Clothing and Events </li></ul><ul><li>informal clothing: </li></ul><ul><li>used as daily wear, for bath houses or informal friend and family visits e.g. yukata (wear in firework display in summer) </li></ul><ul><li>formal clothing: </li></ul><ul><li>wear when having formal visits, funerals , weddings or formal functions e.g. Jinbei (wear during summer festivals) , Furisode (worn by unmarried women in formal social functions) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Clothing <ul><li>Lolita </li></ul><ul><li>a fashion subculture </li></ul><ul><li>mainly 4 types of Lolita (Gothic, Sweet, Classic and Punk ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lolita fashion is mass-marketed and has wide visibility particularly in the streets of Tokyo and Osaka, on television in animation e.g. Paradise of Love </li></ul><ul><li>some of the tourists may like to go to Japan to wear and buy the Lolita clothing </li></ul>
  33. 33. Clothing <ul><li>Cosplay </li></ul><ul><li>short for ‘costume role-play’ </li></ul><ul><li>wear costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea </li></ul><ul><li>characters are often drawn from popular fiction </li></ul><ul><li>experience growing popularity in foreign countries </li></ul><ul><li>tourists would like to buy and dress up cosplay clothing in Japan </li></ul>
  34. 34. Holidays <ul><li>1. Japanese New Year </li></ul><ul><li>the first day of January </li></ul><ul><li>one of the most important annual festivals </li></ul><ul><li>celebrated for centuries with its own unique customs </li></ul>
  35. 35. Holidays <ul><li>Postcards </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese have a custom of sending New Year's Day postcards ( 年賀状 , nengajō) to their friends and relatives </li></ul><ul><li>original purpose is to tell others whom they did not often meet that they were alive and well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not to send these postcards when one has had a death in the family during the year </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Holidays <ul><li>Hatsumode </li></ul><ul><li>the first trip to a shrine or temple </li></ul><ul><li>many people visit a shrine after midnight on December 31 or sometime during the day on January 1 </li></ul><ul><li>wear kimono </li></ul>
  37. 37. Holidays <ul><li>2. Coming of Age Day </li></ul><ul><li>on the second Monday of January </li></ul><ul><li>to congratulate and encourage all those who have reached the age of majority (20 years old) over the past year </li></ul><ul><li>coming of age ceremonies ( 成人式 , seijin-shiki) held at local and prefectural offices </li></ul><ul><li>after-parties amongst family and friends </li></ul>
  38. 38. Holidays <ul><li>3.Children’s Day ( こどもの日 , Kodomonohi) </li></ul><ul><li>May 5 </li></ul><ul><li>respect children's personalities and to celebrate their happiness </li></ul><ul><li>to express gratitude toward mothers </li></ul><ul><li>before this day, families raise the carp-shaped koinobori flags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overcome all difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clear up all dooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grow favorably </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one for each boy (or child) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Festivals <ul><li>Bon Festival </li></ul><ul><li>a Japanese Buddhist custom to honor the departed (deceased) spirits of one's ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>has evolved into a family reunion holiday during which people return to ancestral family places and visit and clean their ancestors' graves </li></ul><ul><li>lasts for three days </li></ul><ul><li>participants traditionally wear yukata, or light cotton kimonos </li></ul><ul><li>include a huge carnival with rides, games, and summer festival food like watermelon </li></ul>
  40. 40. Holidays and Festivals <ul><li>Impacts on Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>boost local tourism as Japanese prefer travelling during the holidays </li></ul><ul><li>respect so much about the holidays ceremonies e.g. Coming of Age Ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>may visit friends or families in Japan or other countries to come and join the ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>festivals promote community sense and develop local pride </li></ul><ul><li>treasure a lot family tree as people (children, youngsters and adults) all join the festivals and make efforts to make it runs smoothly </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sports <ul><li>Football </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is one of the most successful soccer teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup three times </li></ul><ul><li>establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea </li></ul>
  42. 42. Sports <ul><li>Baseball </li></ul><ul><li>the most popular spectator sport in the country </li></ul><ul><li>one of the most famous Japanese baseball players is Ichiro Suzuki, who, having won Japan's Most Valuable Player award in 1994, 1995 and 1996, now plays for the Seattle Mariners of North American Major League Baseball </li></ul>
  43. 43. Sports <ul><li>Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>hosted the Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>has hosted the Winter Olympics twice, in Nagano in 1998 and Sapporo in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>helped to boost Japan tourism by attracting tourists to come and watch the competitions </li></ul>
  44. 44. Education <ul><li>one of the world's best-educated populations </li></ul><ul><li>with 100% enrollment in compulsory grades and zero illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li> the well-educated people can favor the hospitality industry as these people are usually more polite and nice to the guests </li></ul><ul><li>the education system was reformed mainly according to the German and French model </li></ul><ul><li>9 years compulsory education </li></ul><ul><li>includes six years of elementary school and three years of junior high school </li></ul><ul><li>less focus on language training e.g. English, some cannot speak well English </li></ul><ul><li> may affect serving international guests </li></ul>
  45. 45. Group work and its influence on Japanese people <ul><li>Group membership provides enjoyment and fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>But , causes tremendous tension </li></ul><ul><li>An ideology of group harmony does not ensure harmony in fact </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is an extremely competitive society, yet competition within the group must be strictly regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Minor issues are sometimes dealt with by appeals to higher authority </li></ul><ul><li>Major problems may be denied, especially to outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>This burden of these interpersonal tensions is reflected in high rates of alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li> Many Japanese cope with these stresses by retreating into the private self or by enjoying the escapism offered by much of the popular culture </li></ul>
  46. 46. Conclusion <ul><li>Hospitality and Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Power distance </li></ul><ul><li>-Great </li></ul><ul><li>-Respect the elderly </li></ul><ul><li>-use of formal language (keigo けいご敬語 ) </li></ul><ul><li>-use of formal body language (bow , kneel) </li></ul><ul><li>to communicate with senior people , boss and customers </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>-high </li></ul><ul><li>-one employer for entire career </li></ul>M
  47. 47. Conclusion <ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>-Group interest prevail over individual </li></ul><ul><li>-Personal identity is achieved through group participation </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. collective effort to make different OMATSURIs (festivals お祭り ) run smoothly </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. women making greater use of polite forms of language </li></ul>
  48. 48. Conclusion <ul><li>Confucian and Dynamism </li></ul><ul><li>-hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian </li></ul><ul><li>-able to keep traditional culture e.g. Sadou (way of tea) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamism </li></ul><ul><li>-fashion hub is Asia </li></ul><ul><li>-latest trendy Japanese hi-tec. electronic product </li></ul>
  49. 49. Reference <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of Japan (2009). Retrieved October 19, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>The Impact of Japanese Comics and Animation in Asia (2005). Retrieved October 22, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Allen, M. & Sakamoto, R. (2006). Popular Culture, Globalization and Japan. : Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>W. Scott Morton, J. Kenneth Olenik. (2005). Japan : its history and culture.New York : McGraw-Hill . </li></ul><ul><li>Cochrane, J. (2008). Asian Tourism-Growth and Change. Hungary: Elsevier. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>