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Library seminarspeech

  1. 1. Communicating for Success Making Work Work Out Mignon S. Tan Marketing and Promotions Calayan Educational Foundation, Inc.
  2. 2. Communication The success of an organization depends on the communication skills of all its employees <ul><li>People who understand </li></ul><ul><li>how communication functions in an organization, </li></ul><ul><li>who have developed a wide repertory of written and oral communicative skills, </li></ul><ul><li>and who have learned when and how to use those skills seem to have more successful careers and contribute more fully to their organizations than people who have not done so. </li></ul><ul><li>( Conrad and Poole, 1998 ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Did you know? <ul><li>Subscribers to the HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW rated “the ability to communicate” the most important factor in making an executive “promotable” more important than ambition, education and the capacity for hard work. </li></ul><ul><li>William Schaffer of Sun Microsystems, is emphatic in saying “ if there’s one skill that’s required for success in this industry, it’s communication skills.” </li></ul><ul><li>LAPD cited “bad communication” among the most common reasons for errors in shooting by its officers. </li></ul><ul><li>After two studies indicated that physicians with poor communication skills are more likely to be sued, an editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Association called for more communication classes for doctors. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Did you know? <ul><li>One study based on responses from over 1,000 employees in Fortune 1000 companies found that workers send and receive an average of 178 messages each day via telephone, e-mail, faxes, pagers and face-to-face communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts estimated that the average business executive spends 75 to 80 percent of the time communicating – about 45 minutes of every hour. </li></ul><ul><li>A survey of 150 executives from 1,000 large companies found that 14% of each 40-hour workweek is wasted because of poor communication between staff and managers – amounting to a stunning 7 weeks a year . </li></ul>
  5. 5. C o m m u n I c a t I o n The process of people sharing thoughts, ideas and feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways.
  6. 6. C o m m u n i c a t i o n
  7. 7. Communication Effectiveness The degree to which someone tells others something and ensures they understand what was said.
  8. 8. Communication Effectiveness <ul><li>Empathizing </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Reading non-verbal clues </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback giving </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitting your message </li></ul>
  9. 9. Communication and Organizational Success <ul><li>Communication is CENTRAL. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Communication is a PERVASIVE ACTIVITY. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations function by operating interdependently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations must relay information about job expectations and procedures, be prepared to receive responses to the messages they communicate, and respond intelligently to the feedback in a timely way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor internal communication can result in bruised interpersonal relationships that directly or indirectly undermine the efficiency of an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Organizational Communication is MULTIDIMENSIONAL. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Formal & Non-formal Communication FORMAL Communication Occurs through established lines of authority. Written or Oral. Communication may travel down, cross, or up lines of authority. INFORMAL Communication Does not follow established lines of authority. Written or oral. Sharing interests over lunch or during breaks and socializing after work. Referred to as Grapevine , usually a rapid communication channel, although not always an accurate one.
  11. 11. Downward Communication Occurs when superiors initiate messages to their subordinates. <ul><li>Job Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>directions on what to do/how to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>explanations of how one task relates to others tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures and Practices </li></ul><ul><li>information about rules, regulations and policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>information about how effectively a person is doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Indoctrination </li></ul><ul><li>information at motivating employees by impressing the organization’s mission upon them and specifying how they can relate to it. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Upward Communication Messages flowing from subordinates to superiors. Virtually every organization claims to seek out upward messages, but many aren’t as open to employees opinions as they claim to be. <ul><li>What subordinates are doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsolved work problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>How subordinates feel about each other and the job </li></ul>
  13. 13. Horizontal Communication Messages between members of an organization with equal power. <ul><li>Task Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Building Rapport </li></ul>
  14. 14. Use Face-to-Face when <ul><li>Immediate feedback needed </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent record not needed </li></ul><ul><li>Topic emotional or complex; </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion required </li></ul><ul><li>Message important and new </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence and trust need developing </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient and economical to assemble audience </li></ul>
  15. 15. Send Written Message when <ul><li>Immediate feedback not needed </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent, verifiable record needed </li></ul><ul><li>Exact wording important; careful planning required </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up to face-to-face meeting needed </li></ul><ul><li>Content more important than feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Audience large and geographically dispersed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Send Electronic Message when <ul><li>Immediate feedback not needed, but speed important </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent record not needed, but </li></ul><ul><li>wish to overcome time-zone barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Message explicit, little interpretation needed, transferred quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Information used to support or expand face-to-face meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Speed, cost, or convenience crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Audience large and geographically dispersed but speedy back-and-forth messages important </li></ul>
  17. 17. Information as it travels through channels Written by the Board of Directors Received by the Vice-President Received by the Gen. Supervisor Received by the Plant Manager Received by the General Foreman Received by the Worker 100% 63% 56% 40% 30% 20%
  18. 18. A Communication Fallacy <ul><ul><li>LEVELED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some details are lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONDENSED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the message becomes shorter and simpler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHARPENED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some details are highlighted, thereby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>becoming more important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASSIMILATED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ambiguities are clarified and interpreted to conform to past messages and future expectations from individual frames of reference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMBELLISHED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details are added. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A Story of Four People This is a story about 4 people named EVERYBODY, SOMEBODY, ANYBODY and NOBODY.   There was an important job to be done and EVERYBODY was sure SOMEBODY would do it. ANYBODY could have done it but NOBODY did it. SOMEBODY got angry about that because it was EVERYBODYs job.   EVERY thought ANYBODY could do it but NOBODY realized that EVERYBODY would not do it.   It ended that EVERYBODY blamed SOMEBODY when NOBODY did what ANYBODY could have done.
  20. 20. WADING THROUGH THE CORPORATE FOG ORIGINAL MESSAGE As per your subject memo, we are researching the history of price promotion #18B to establish why the new price sheets were not received by the sales force in advance of the effective date of the promotion. It is unclear from your memo how widespread the problem was or it was just isolated in certain geographies. Therefore, we will need additional facts on where you think the problem occurred. As you know, we have gotten complaints from salespeople in the past that they did not receive the promotions, only to find out later that they had lost them due to his own disorganization.
  21. 21. WADING THROUGH THE CORPORATE FOG TRANSLATION We screwed things up, but we’re not about to admit it.
  22. 22. WADING THROUGH THE CORPORATE FOG IMPROVED MESSAGE Thanks for bringing the problem with this promotion to my attention. It looks like we screwed up at this end in getting the proofs to the printer on schedule. My staff and I feel so badly about this and will take steps to provide better service.
  23. 23. PRUNING THE GRAPEVINE <ul><li>Proper Use Of Informal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Considering the OPEN SHARING of information with relevant groups. </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN DECISIONS and ACTIONS that could seem inconsistent or secretive. </li></ul><ul><li>ANNOUNCE TIMETABLES for important, upcoming events. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge any DOWNSIDES to decisions to the affected groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Openly discuss even the WORST CASE SCENARIO . </li></ul><ul><li>REFUTE A RUMOR in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Use truthful statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate spokesperson (perhaps CEO). </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a town meeting format if the rumor is creating great problems. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Four Primary Communication Styles <ul><li>DIRECTIVE COMMUNICATION STYLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is a one-way activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom ask questions; Never pause for people to “get a word in”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide little information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on authority; Give specific directions to subordinates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect their subordinates to follow directions to the letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little tolerance for people who do things their own way. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Four Primary Communication Styles <ul><li>ANALYTIC COMMUNICATION STYLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is one-way activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect subordinates to do exactly what they are told. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differ from DIRECTIVE Style in the amount of information they present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on superior knowledge of the subject. Know more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more info to convince subordinates to do things their way. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Four Primary Communication Styles <ul><li>CONSULTATIVE COMMUNICATION STYLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use large amounts of information like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANALYTIC style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is a two-way activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in extended conversations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use information to help members find solutions, not to dominate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content to explain the purpose or direction of activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let subordinates figure out the best way to get things done. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Four Primary Communication Styles <ul><li>BEHAVIORAL COMMUNICATION STYLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is a two-way activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled at involving others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They differ from CONSULTATIVE communicators in contributing relatively little information to the conversation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the behavior of the participants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More concerned with developing relationships than accomplishing task. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Average Communication Style Scores
  29. 29. STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES - Communication Styles DIRECTIVE STYLE STRENGTHS Best used when time is limited, risk is great. Appropriate when dealing with unskilled employees in situations where initiative is not expected nor required. Used when managers have complete power over employees, no reason to experiment with other approaches. WEAKNESSES Because subordinates are given specific directions with few opportunities to do things their own way, they don’t develop initiative or responsibility. Subordinates are never given a chance to grow or develop their own skills
  30. 30. STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES - Communication Styles ANALYTIC STYLE STRENGTHS Ideal approach to educating new workers who benefit from the information presented. Useful way of persuading /influencing others when a manager doesn’t have sufficient power or authority. WEAKNESSES Subordinates don’t develop their own approaches. Lose advantage of speed due to time used in presenting large amounts of information
  31. 31. STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES - Communication Styles CONSULTATIVE STYLE STRENGTHS Allow subordinates to develop their own approaches, encourage initiative Contributes to subordinates’ feelings of ownership Helpful when subordinates encounter task-related problems . WEAKNESSES
  32. 32. STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES - Communication Styles BEHAVIORAL STYLE STRENGTHS Allow subordinates to develop their own approaches, encourage initiatives Contributes to subordinates’ feelings of ownership Helpful when subordinates encounter problems focusing on relationships WEAKNESSES
  33. 33. Myths and Misconceptions about Communication in Organization Myth #1 Meanings are in Words. Myth #2 Communication is a Verbal Process. Myth #3 Telling is Communicating. Myth #4 Communication will Solve all our Problems. Myth # 5 Communication is a Good Thing. Myth #6 The More Communication, the Better. Myth # 7 Communication can Break Down. Myth #8 Communication is a Natural Ability.
  34. 34. Thank you. 