Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

- multiplexing by Munna Sagar 1475 views
- FTTH Conference 2011 Workshop The W... by ceobroadband 1321 views
- Unit 4 bandwidth utilization by Anjuman College o... 386 views
- COMPLETE COMPUTER NETWORK by Amar Panchal 1720 views
- 3 g by roopeshkkuttikol 5650 views
- Wireless assignment 20 topics by usman lakhwera 15 views

3,090 views

Published on

No Downloads

Total views

3,090

On SlideShare

0

From Embeds

0

Number of Embeds

2

Shares

0

Downloads

105

Comments

0

Likes

2

No embeds

No notes for slide

- 1. Data and Computer Communications Eighth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown Chapter 8 – Multiplexing
- 2. Multiplexing <ul><li>It was impossible to get a conversation going, everybody was talking too much. </li></ul><ul><li>Yogi Berra </li></ul>
- 3. Multiplexing <ul><li>multiple links on 1 physical line </li></ul><ul><li>common on long-haul, high capacity, links </li></ul><ul><li>have FDM, TDM, STDM alternatives </li></ul>
- 4. Frequency Division Multiplexing
- 5. FDM System Overview
- 6. FDM Voiceband Example
- 7. Analog Carrier Systems <ul><li>long-distance links use an FDM hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T (USA) and ITU-T (International) variants </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 voice channels (4kHz each) = 48kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in range 60kHz to 108kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supergroup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FDM of 5 group signals supports 60 channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on carriers between 420kHz and 612 kHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastergroup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FDM of 10 supergroups supports 600 channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>so original signal can be modulated many times </li></ul>
- 8. Wavelength Division Multiplexing <ul><li>FDM with multiple beams of light at different freq </li></ul><ul><li>carried over optical fiber links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commercial systems with 160 channels of 10 Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lab demo of 256 channels 39.8 Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>architecture similar to other FDM systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiplexer consolidates laser sources (1550nm) for transmission over single fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical amplifiers amplify all wavelengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demux separates channels at the destination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>also have Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) </li></ul>
- 9. Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
- 10. TDM System Overview
- 11. TDM Link Control <ul><li>no headers and trailers </li></ul><ul><li>data link control protocols not needed </li></ul><ul><li>flow control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data rate of multiplexed line is fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if one channel receiver can not receive data, the others must carry on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corresponding source must be quenched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leaving empty slots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>error control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>errors detected & handled on individual channel </li></ul></ul>
- 12. Data Link Control on TDM
- 13. Framing <ul><li>no flag or SYNC chars bracketing TDM frames </li></ul><ul><li>must still provide synchronizing mechanism between src and dest clocks </li></ul><ul><li>added digit framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one control bit added to each TDM frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identifiable bit pattern used on control channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. alternating 01010101…unlikely on a data channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compare incoming bit patterns on each channel with known sync pattern </li></ul></ul>
- 14. Pulse Stuffing <ul><li>have problem of synchronizing data sources </li></ul><ul><li>with clocks in different sources drifting </li></ul><ul><li>also issue of data rates from different sources not related by simple rational number </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse Stuffing a common solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have outgoing data rate (excluding framing bits) higher than sum of incoming rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stuff extra dummy bits or pulses into each incoming signal until it matches local clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stuffed pulses inserted at fixed locations in frame and removed at demultiplexer </li></ul></ul>
- 15. TDM Example
- 16. Digital Carrier Systems <ul><li>long-distance links use an TDM hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T (USA) and ITU-T (International) variants </li></ul><ul><li>US system based on DS-1 format </li></ul><ul><li>can carry mixed voice and data signals </li></ul><ul><li>24 channels used for total data rate 1.544Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>each voice channel contains one word of digitized data (PCM, 8000 samples per sec) </li></ul><ul><li>same format for 56kbps digital data </li></ul><ul><li>can interleave DS-1 channels for higher rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DS-2 is four DS-1 at 6.312Mbps </li></ul></ul>
- 17. DS-1 Transmission Format
- 18. SONET/SDH <ul><li>Synchronous Optical Network (ANSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (ITU-T) </li></ul><ul><li>have hierarchy of signal rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous Transport Signal level 1 (STS-1) or Optical Carrier level 1 (OC-1) is 51.84Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carries one DS-3 or multiple (DS1 DS1C DS2) plus ITU-T rates (eg. 2.048Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple STS-1 combine into STS-N signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITU-T lowest rate is 155.52Mbps (STM-1) </li></ul></ul>
- 19. SONET Frame Format
- 20. Statistical TDM <ul><li>in Synch TDM many slots are wasted </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical TDM allocates time slots dynamically based on demand </li></ul><ul><li>multiplexer scans input lines and collects data until frame full </li></ul><ul><li>line data rate lower than aggregate input line rates </li></ul><ul><li>may have problems during peak periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must buffer inputs </li></ul></ul>
- 21. Statistical TDM Frame Format
- 22. Cable Modems <ul><li>dedicate two cable TV channels to data transfer </li></ul><ul><li>each channel shared by number of subscribers, using statistical TDM </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cable scheduler delivers data in small packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>active subscribers share downstream capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also allocates upstream time slots to subscribers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upstream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user requests timeslots on shared upstream channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headend scheduler notifies subscriber of slots to use </li></ul></ul>
- 23. Cable Modem Scheme
- 24. Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) <ul><li>link between subscriber and network </li></ul><ul><li>uses currently installed twisted pair cable </li></ul><ul><li>is Asymmetric - bigger downstream than up </li></ul><ul><li>uses Frequency division multiplexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reserve lowest 25kHz for voice (POTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses echo cancellation or FDM to give two bands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>has a range of up to 5.5km </li></ul>
- 25. ADSL Channel Configuration
- 26. Discrete Multitone (DMT) <ul><li>multiple carrier signals at different frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>divide into 4kHz subchannels </li></ul><ul><li>test and use subchannels with better SNR </li></ul><ul><li>256 downstream subchannels at 4kHz (60kbps) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in theory 15.36Mbps, in practice 1.5-9Mbps </li></ul></ul>
- 27. DMT Transmitter
- 28. xDSL <ul><li>High data rate DSL (HDSL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2B1Q coding on dual twisted pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>up to 2Mbps over 3.7km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single line DSL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2B1Q coding on single twisted pair (residential) with echo cancelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>up to 2Mbps over 3.7km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very high data rate DSL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DMT/QAM for very high data rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over separate bands for separate services </li></ul></ul>
- 29. Summary <ul><li>looked at multiplexing multiple channels on a single link </li></ul><ul><li>FDM </li></ul><ul><li>TDM </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical TDM </li></ul><ul><li>ADSL and xDSL </li></ul>

No public clipboards found for this slide

×
### Save the most important slides with Clipping

Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. You can keep your great finds in clipboards organized around topics.

Be the first to comment