*refers to consistency, dependability or stability of an assessment method*also refers to the consistency of the scores obtained-how consistent they are for each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of items to another
Also known as the Split Half Method which involves scoring two-halves (usually odd items versus even items) of a test separately for each person and then calculating a correlation coefficient for the two set of scores.
*Kuder-Richardson Formulae (KR 20 or KR 21) more frequently employed formula for determining internal consistency. KR20 is more difficult to calculate and requires a computer program.K-number of items on the testM-mean of the test M=Σxi/n sum of the scores divided by the number of students who took the testVariance-variance of the test scores V=sum of differences of individual scores and Mean/n-1 where n is the number of test takers
Reliability and validity are related concepts. If an instrument is unreliable, it cannot yield valid outcomes. As reliability improves, validity may improve (or it may not). However if an instrument is shown scientifically to be valid then it is almost certain that it is also reliable. This table presented is a standard followed almost universally in educational tests and measurement..90-at the level of the best standardized test.70-in the range of most. There are probably a few items which could be improved.60-this test needs to be supplemented by other measures (e.g. more tests) to determine grades. There are probably some items which could be improved.50-unless it is quite short (ten or fewer items). The test definitely needs to be supplemented by other measures (e.g. more tests) for grading.50 below- this test should not contribute heavily to the course grade, and it needs revision.
* Principles -
1. CLARITY OF LEARNING TARGETS (knowledge, reasoning, skills, products, affects) Assessment can be made precise, accurate and dependable only if what are to be achieved are clearly stated and feasible. The learning targets, involving knowledge, reasoning, skills, products and effects, need to be stated in behavioral terms which denote something which can be observed through the behavior of the students.
Assessment should be clearly stated and specified and centered on what is truly important."Teaching emphasis should parallel testing emphasis."
Cognitive Targets Benjamin Bloom (1954) proposed a hierarchy of educational objectives at the cognitive level. These are: •Knowledge – acquisition of facts, concepts and theories •Comprehension - understanding, involves cognition or awareness of the interrelationships •Application – transfer of knowledge from one field of study to another of from one concept to another concept in the same discipline •Analysis – breaking down of a concept or idea into its components and explaining g the concept as a composition of these concepts •Synthesis – opposite of analysis, entails putting together the components in order to summarize the concept •Evaluation and Reasoning – valuing and judgment or putting the “worth” of a concept or principle.
Skills, Competencies and Abilities Targets Skills – specific activities or tasks that a student can proficiently do Competencies – cluster of skills Abilities – made up of relate competencies categorized as:i. Cognitive ii. Affective iii. Psychomotor
Products, Outputs and Project Targets - tangible and concrete evidence of a student’s ability - need to clearly specify the level of workmanship of projects i. expert ii. skilled iii. novice
Principles of high quality assessment
“what does it mean to
be real and to be
certain in a world
full of fraud and
.90 and above Excellent Reliability
.80 -. 90 Very good for a
.70 - .80 Good for a classroom
.60 - .70 Somewhat low
.50 - .60 Suggests need for
revision of test
.50 or below Questionable
A 50 item test was
administered to a group
of 20 students. The
mean score was 35
deviation was 5.5.
Compute the KR21
index of reliability.
"The society we live in is
a prison where the
hearts of the people are
the judges and their eyes
are the cold bars." -
Principles of High
The BSED 3-N1 will:
1.) Identify the person/s behind
Principles of High Quality Assessment.
2.) Discuss various possible
assessments that will cater different
types of Learners.
3.) Identify and apply different
teaching strategies that will meet the
Principles of High Quality
Knowledge Students’ mastery of the
Reasoning Students’ ability to use their
Skills Students’ ability to
demonstrate what they have
Products Students’ ability to create.
Affects Students’ emotional
or tasks that a
skillsmade up of related