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Literary perspective


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my discussion about the literary perspective during the middle ages for my MA 211 class (Highlights on Oriental and Continental Drama)

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Literary perspective

  1. 1. Literary Perspective ‘Middle Ages’ Prepared and Presented by: JANUARY B. MERILLES MAEngEd Student – BU Graduate School for MALit 222: Highlights of Oriental and Continental Drama PROF. LUISITO P. SAGARBARRIA Subject Professor 04/16/2016
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives:  After actively participating in a 60-120 min. discussion, my fellow MA Learners will exhibit the following behaviors: a. Identify various literary perspectives and themes during the middle ages; b. Determine the significant events during the middle ages in different areas that contributed in the creation of various literary works; c. Appropriately assess the relevance of various medieval concepts and literary perspectives to modern literature specifically in terms of theater/drama; d. Application of knowledge, skills and values learned from this topic to real life experiences and actual teaching situations.
  3. 3. Literary Perspective  Perspective pǝr-’spǝk-tiv n. ~ a view of things in their true relationship or relative importance ~scene as viewed through the eyes/mind of the chosen character
  4. 4. The Middle Ages
  5. 5. Knights!
  6. 6. Castles!
  7. 7. Feudal Warfare!!!!
  8. 8. Chivalry- code of honor
  9. 9. Vikings!
  10. 10. Jousting Tournaments
  11. 11. The Middle Ages  Early Middle Ages 500-1000 AD  High Middle Ages 1000–1300 AD  Late Middle Ages 1300–1500 AD
  12. 12. Map of Medieval Europe
  13. 13. Commercial Networks
  14. 14. The Early Middle Ages (550 – 1000)
  15. 15. The Barbarians takeover
  16. 16. Invaders and Raiders
  17. 17. Charlemagne the Warrior (b742-d814)
  18. 18. Charlemagne the Great
  19. 19. The High Middle Ages (1000-1300)
  20. 20. Medieval England
  21. 21. The Battle of Hastings
  22. 22. The White Tower in London… part of William’s legacyChartres Cathedral
  23. 23. The Feudal System
  24. 24. Bound by law and custom…  It is the custom in England, as with other countries, for the nobility to have great power over the common people, who are serfs. This means that they are bound by law and custom to plough the field of their masters, harvest the corn, gather it into barns, and thresh and winnow the grain; they must also mow and carry home the hay, cut and collect wood, and perform all manner of tasks of this kind. -- Jean Froissart, 1395
  25. 25. The Lord of the Manor
  26. 26. The Three Estates
  27. 27. The Church
  28. 28. Women in the Middle Ages
  29. 29. The Crusades (1096 – 1272)
  30. 30. THE CRUSADES Causes • 1. Pope wanted to increase his power • 2. Many serfs wanted to gain freedom • 3. Some thought it would clear themselves from sin. GOAL • CHRISTIANS WANTED TO REGAIN THE HOLY LAND FROM THE MUSLIMS RESULTS • 1. Legacy of hatred between Christians and Jews. • 2. Increased trade between the East and Western Europe • 3. Decreased power of the church • 4. Italy became the center of trade
  31. 31. The Magna Carta
  32. 32. Education and The Rise of Universities
  33. 33. Areas of Study & Teaching Style
  34. 34. Medieval Architecture
  35. 35. Medieval Homes
  36. 36. Clothing and Medicine
  37. 37. Town Life
  38. 38. Arts & Entertainment
  39. 39. Musical Instruments
  40. 40. Peddlers, Businessmen and Tradesmen
  41. 41. Boroughs and Town Governments
  42. 42. Guilds and The Masterpiece
  43. 43. The Merchant Class, Masons and Apprentices
  44. 44. The Printing Press and The First Companies
  45. 45. The Late Middle Ages (1300-1500)
  46. 46. Climate Change and Famine
  47. 47.  The Spread of the Black Death
  48. 48. TheBlack Death (1348-1350)
  49. 49. Black Death (1348-1350)
  50. 50. Black death - impacts
  51. 51. The Hundred Years’ War
  52. 52. The End of Middle Ages
  53. 53. Changes in the Middle Ages  France: Created legislative branch—the Estates General. Fought 100 Year War with England.  England:  Moves towards a limited monarchy—Signing of the Magna Carta and creation of Parliament  English Common Law— decisions by royal courts became law  SPAIN  1479 united under Ferdinand and Isabella  Spanish Inquisition— forced conversion of Jews and Muslims along with torture.  GERMANY  Known as the Holy Roman Empire  Hapsburgs became most powerful family in Europe
  54. 54. Literature During the Medieval Period
  55. 55. Languages and Writings
  56. 56. Authorship & Types of Literature
  57. 57. Troubadours
  58. 58. Chanson de Geste
  59. 59. Characteristics of Medieval Literature  Romance  Christian Message  Heroism  Presentations of Idealized Behavior  Use of Kennings  Use of Allegory
  60. 60. Medieval Romance
  61. 61. Chivalric Code and Courtly Love
  62. 62. Knighthood and Chivalry
  63. 63. Flowering of Poetry about Courtly Love
  64. 64. The Ideal of Courtly Love
  65. 65. Love Conquers All
  66. 66. The Quest
  67. 67. The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland)
  68. 68. Pilgrimages: The Canterbury Tales
  69. 69. WRITERS & POETS during the Medieval Period
  70. 70. Cædmon Earliest-Known English Poet Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard metudæs maecti end his modgidanc uerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaes eci dryctin or astelidæ he aerist scop aelda barnum heben til hrofe haleg scepen. tha middungeard moncynnæs uard eci dryctin æfter tiadæ firum foldu frea allmectigprimo cantauit Cædmon istud carmen.
  71. 71. Cædmon Earliest-Known English Poet Now let me praise the keeper of Heaven's kingdom, The might of the Creator, and his thought, The work of the Father of glory, how each of wonders The Eternal Lord established in the beginning. He first created for the sons of men Heaven as a roof, the holy Creator, Then Middle-earth the keeper of mankind, The Eternal Lord, afterwards made, The earth for men, the Almighty Lord.
  72. 72. Geoffrey Chaucer The Father of English Literature (1343 – October 25, 1400)
  73. 73. Geoffrey Chaucer
  74. 74. St. Julian of Norwich
  75. 75. Medieval Drama
  76. 76. The Medieval Drama  General features  Themes  Structure  Language  Audience  Authors and works
  77. 77. General features  Medieval drama flourished in the 15th century; it developed out of liturgical ceremonies: the origin of medieval plays can be found in the Church and in its rituals  At first the church had control of drama even outside of the church- they would give the approval  But secular groups like trade guilds took over. They were called, “Confraternities”.  It was common that certain guild would retain control over certain play/stories, all of which were based on the Bible or religious teachings.
  78. 78. Theme  Morality  Mystery and Miracle  Farce
  79. 79. Structure  The Miracles grew in popularity, so the plays left the Church to be performed first in the Church yard, then in other open spaces of the town
  80. 80.  Common people didn’t understand Latin, nor read it. So, to ignite an interest in a faith losing to paganism the church began incorporating it’s liturgy into plays. Language
  81. 81. Audience  The cycles of Mistery plays appealed to all social classes, from royalty to peasants: they all came in to watch the plays. Cycles instilled a love of drama in the people
  82. 82. Medieval Stages There were two main areas for performances to take place:  Mansions  Platea
  83. 83. Medieval Pageant Wagon
  84. 84. Staging Devices
  85. 85. Author and Works Most authors of Medieval plays were anonymous. Some important ones are:  Hrosvitha- A Benedictine Nun  John Bale- English Churchman  Adam de la Halle – A French composer
  86. 86. Hrotsvit of Gandersheim 935-1000
  87. 87. Earlier Medieval Drama
  88. 88. Liturgical Drama
  89. 89. Quem Quaeritis Quem quaeritis in sepulchro, o Christicolae? Jesum Nazarenum crucifixum, o caelicolae. Non est hic; surrexit, sicut praedixerat. Ite, nuntiate quia surrexit de sepulchro Translation: The Angels: Whom do ye seek in the sepulcher, O followers of Christ? The Marys: Jesus of Nazareth, the Crucified, O heavenly ones. The Angels: He is not here; he is risen, just as he foretold. Go, announce that he is risen from the sepulcher. —John Glassner, editor, Medieval and Tudor Drama.
  90. 90. Troupe
  91. 91. The 5 M’s  Mummings  Mystery Play  Morality Play  Miracle Play  Manners
  92. 92. Medieval Comedy
  93. 93. Passion Play  Late middle ages, the passion play developed.
  94. 94. Secular Plays
  95. 95. Impact of Medieval Drama  Main Impact: Because the actors got much closer to their audience, acting became more important than dialogue.  Also…Mixed comedy and seriousness, which transitioned into Italian and Elizabethan drama.
  96. 96. Medieval rebirth of the theatre gives us a lesson: “Whenever a society is sufficiently developed to allow its members freedoms of time and expression, the celebration of theatre will be an important way to explore and expand those freedoms.”
  97. 97. Oscar Wilde said it best: “I regard the theatre as the greatest of all art forms, the most immediate way in which a human being can share with another the sense of what it is to be a human being”.
  98. 98. Literary Perspectives  The Psychological Perspective  The Social Power Perspective  The Formalist Perspective  The Historical Perspective  The Biographical Perspective  Reader-Response Perspective  The Archetypal Perspective  The Gender Perspective  Deconstruction
  99. 99. Point of View in Literature - Perspectives  Single Major Character Viewpoint  Minor Character Viewpoint  Omniscient Viewpoint  Multiple Viewpoints
  100. 100. References  Deborah Appleman, Critical Encounters in High School English: Teaching Literary Theory to Adolescents, Second Edition, New York: Teachers College Press. Copyright © 2009 by Teachers College, Columbia University.  Retrieved from the companion website for Uncommon Core: Where the Authors of the Standards Go Wrong About Instruction—and How You Can Get It Right by Michael W. Smith, Deborah Appleman, and Jeffrey D. Wilhelm. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin,    
  101. 101. References Askelan, Erin. The History of Medieval Theater. Retrieved from: medieval-theater.html Retrieved from: Pfontaine. 2010. Drama 1301 project-Medieval Theater. Retrieved from: drama-fnl
  102. 102. Future Readings Anthology of Middle English Literature Art History Resources on the Web Australian Catholic University Castles of College at Oneonta Department of Astrology at University of Maryland End of Europe’s Middle Ages University Calgary Gregorian Chant History Link 101 Labyrinth at Georgetown University National Archives and Records Administration New York Timelines.Info
  103. 103. © JANUARY B. MERILLES 04/16/16 “ Whoever is wise, let him heed these things and consider the great love of the LORD.” Psalm 107:43 (NIV)