The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies within the academy (Second Wave Feminism, also called The Feminist Movement, or the Women's Liberation Movement, is a period of feminist activity in the United States which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1990s) (Many feminists view the second-wave feminist era as ending with the intra-feminism disputes of the Feminist Sex Wars over issues such as sexuality and pornography, which ushered in the era of third-wave feminism) Feminist scholars began taking cues from the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film.
Analysis generally focused on &quot;the production of meaning in a film text, the way a text constructs a viewing subject, and the ways in which the very mechanisms of cinematic production affect the representation of women and reinforce sexism” Wants women to be taken serious on screen and not just “eye candy” Felt that the roles of women in film would have a negative impact on female viewers.
Initial attempts in the United States in the early 1970s were generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of women characters in particular film narratives or genres and of stereotypes as a reflection of a society's view of women In contrast, film theoreticians in England began integrating critical theory based perspectives drawn from psychoanalysis, semiotics, and Marxism, and eventually these ideas gained hold within the American scholarly community in the later 1970s and 1980s. More recently, scholars have expanded their work to include analysis of television and digital media.
Additionally, they have begun to explore notions of difference, engaging in dialogue about the differences among women (part of movement away from essentialism in feminist work more generally), the various methodologies and perspectives contained under the umbrella of feminist film theory, and the multiplicity of methods and intended effects that influence the development of films.
Scholars are also taking increasingly global perspectives, responding to post colonialist criticisms of Anglo- and Eurocentrism in the academy more generally. Increased focus has been given to, &quot;disparate feminisms, nationalisms, and media in various locations and across class, racial, and ethnic groups throughout the world” In today’s films, women are finally getting their break as independent and educated, despite also maintaining roles as mothers, lovers, teachers, etc.
Carol J. Clover Molly Haskell Dai Jinhua Claire Johnston Teresa de Lauretis Laura Mulvey Griselda Pollock B. Ruby Rich Kaja Silverman
Works such as Marjorie Rosen’s Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) and Molly Haskell’s From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974) analyze how the women portrayed in film related to the broader historical context, the stereotypes depicted, the extent to which the women were shown as active or passive, and the amount of screen time given to women
FEMINIST THEORY Vanessa Griffith Alyssa Heimrich Maren Janssen Marc Nappi Joseph Walker
HISTORYnfluenced by second wavefeminism (early 1960s- late1990s)sed cues from new theories toanalyze film - Majorie Rosen
THE ANALYSIS ocuses on women’s roles in film as a direct reflection of society’s view of women. ants women to be taken serious on screen and not just “eye candy”- Molly Haskel elt that the roles of women in film would have a negative impact on female viewers
FEMINISM AROUND THE WORLD United States Englandarly 1970s ntegrated theory based on: • Psychoanalysis • Semioticsenerally based on sociological • Marxismtheory ventually picked up withinunction of women characters in American scholarly communityfilm
TODAYxplore notions of differencengage in dialogue about differencesamong womenExplore various methodologies andumbrellas under the umbrella offeminist theorytudy the multiplicity of methods andintended effects that influence of thedevelopment of films
TODAY ake into account Global Perspectives espond to post-colonialist criticism ncreased focus to: • Disparate feminisms • Nationalisms • Media in various locations • Class, racial, and ethnic groups inally getting their break as independent and educated
NOTABLE FIGURESarol J. Clover aura Mulveyolly Haskell riselda Pollockai Jinhua . Ruby Richlaire Johnston aja Silvermaneresa de Lauretis
NOTABLE WORKS ajorie Rosen Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) olly Haskell: From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974)