Essence Of Containerizati on 230508

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Essence Of Containerizati on 230508

  1. 2. Essence of Containerization <ul><li>Containerization </li></ul><ul><li>Container </li></ul><ul><li>Container System </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Import / Export Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking and Security </li></ul><ul><li>Container Management Info. System (CMIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>
  2. 3. Containerization <ul><li>Purpose / Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Evolution / History </li></ul><ul><li>3. Advantages </li></ul>
  3. 4. Containerization <ul><li>Purpose / Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution / History </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul>
  4. 5. Categories of Sea Cargo <ul><li>Liquid Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>General: Coventional </li></ul><ul><li>Container </li></ul>
  5. 6. Categories of Sea Cargo <ul><li>Liquid Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>General: Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Container </li></ul>
  6. 8. Categories of Sea Cargo <ul><li>Liquid Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>General: Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Container </li></ul>
  7. 11. Categories of Sea Cargo <ul><li>Liquid Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Bulk </li></ul><ul><li>General: Conventional/Breakbulk </li></ul><ul><li>Container </li></ul>
  8. 13. General Cargo: Break bulk <ul><li>Labour Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Time Consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – ineffective </li></ul>
  9. 14. Unitization <ul><li>Palletization </li></ul><ul><li>Jumboization </li></ul><ul><li>Ro-Ro </li></ul><ul><li>Lash </li></ul><ul><li>Containerization </li></ul>
  10. 15. General Cargo: Break bulk <ul><li>Labour Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Time Consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – ineffective </li></ul>
  11. 17. Unitization <ul><li>Palletization </li></ul><ul><li>Jumboization </li></ul><ul><li>Ro-Ro </li></ul><ul><li>Lash </li></ul><ul><li>Containerization </li></ul>
  12. 19. Unitization <ul><li>Palletization </li></ul><ul><li>Jumboization </li></ul><ul><li>Ro-Ro </li></ul><ul><li>Lash </li></ul><ul><li>Containerization </li></ul>
  13. 21. Unitization <ul><li>Palletization </li></ul><ul><li>Jumboization </li></ul><ul><li>Ro-Ro </li></ul><ul><li>LASH </li></ul><ul><li>Containerization </li></ul>
  14. 24. Unitization <ul><li>Palletization </li></ul><ul><li>Jumboization </li></ul><ul><li>Ro-Ro </li></ul><ul><li>Lash </li></ul><ul><li>Containerization </li></ul>
  15. 26. Philosophy of Containerisation <ul><li>To reduce to absolute minimum the number of times a piece of cargo is handled </li></ul>
  16. 27. Containerization <ul><li>Purpose / Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution / History </li></ul><ul><li>3. Advantages </li></ul>
  17. 28. Evolution / History of Containerisation <ul><li>Rail Container – 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Sea/ Marine Container – 2 nd World War </li></ul><ul><li>Malcom Maclean – Sealand </li></ul><ul><li>First Sea Container Transportation – 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Piggy back system on RORO </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicted Container Ship----1966 </li></ul>
  18. 31. Containerization <ul><li>Purpose / Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution / History </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul>
  19. 32. ADVANTAGES OF CONTAINERIZATION <ul><li>Reduced ship time in Port </li></ul><ul><li>Better berth utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced time between producer and consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum physical handling of cargo – less damage </li></ul><ul><li>Good security – less pilferage </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against weather and other harmful atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Less labour & staff cost </li></ul><ul><li>Saving in packaging cost </li></ul>
  20. 33. Container <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul>
  21. 34. Container : Definition <ul><li>Rectangular Box </li></ul><ul><li>Weatherproof </li></ul><ul><li>Safe and Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized features </li></ul>
  22. 36. CONTAINER <ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Size – Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Markings </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Material </li></ul>
  23. 37. Container Types <ul><li>Dry General </li></ul><ul><li>Open Top </li></ul><ul><li>Open Sided </li></ul><ul><li>Open Top-open Sided </li></ul><ul><li>Reefer </li></ul><ul><li>Special </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car </li></ul></ul>
  24. 38. Container Size <ul><li>LENGTH : 20 FT </li></ul><ul><li>40 FT </li></ul><ul><li>WIDTH : 8 FT </li></ul><ul><li>HEIGHT : 8 FT 6 INCH </li></ul><ul><li>9 FT </li></ul><ul><li>9 FT 6 INCH </li></ul>
  25. 40. Container Weight <ul><li>Tare Weight : 1.5 to 2.5 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Max Gross Weight : 20 to 45 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Pay Load : 18 to 42 tons </li></ul>
  26. 41. Container Markings ALPHA NUMERICAL MARK APLU 204151 2 Agent Code Serial Number Check Digit On All Sides Except Bottom
  27. 42. Container Material <ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>FRP / Plywood </li></ul>
  28. 43. CONTAINER SYSTEM <ul><li>Ship operation </li></ul><ul><li>Quay operation </li></ul><ul><li>Yard operation </li></ul><ul><li>R & D operation </li></ul>Termina l Off Terminal
  29. 45. Container Cycle Ship Operation Quay Operation Yard Operation
  30. 46. Ship Operation <ul><li>Aim : To turnaround the vessel at the quickest possible time . </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting / making Bay Plan </li></ul><ul><li>No. of cranes to be mobilized </li></ul><ul><li>Discharging / Loading sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Allocating jobs to Crane </li></ul>
  31. 47. 20 feet Bays
  32. 48. 40 feet Bays
  33. 49. 20 – 40 feet bays
  34. 51. Row Numbering
  35. 52. Tier Numbering
  36. 53. Odd Bay Numbering
  37. 54. Even Bay Numbering
  38. 59. Quay Operation <ul><li>Aim : To keep pace with Ship Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Determining no. of prime movers </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning PM/Straddle Carriers to ind. Cranes. </li></ul>
  39. 62. Yard Operation <ul><li>Aim : Receiving / Despatching containers sequentially and quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Planning storage </li></ul><ul><li>Yard Address </li></ul><ul><li>Order of stacking </li></ul><ul><li>Determining and allocating yard equipments </li></ul>
  40. 66. Receipt / Delivery Operation <ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receipt of Loaded Export Containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receipt of loose export cargo and stuffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of import cargo alongwith container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of import cargo in loose form after destuffing </li></ul></ul>
  41. 67. CONTAINER SYSTEM FACILITIES <ul><li>A : TERMINAL </li></ul><ul><li>Quay or Berth </li></ul><ul><li>Quay Apron or Wharf </li></ul><ul><li>Yard </li></ul><ul><li>Control Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Gate </li></ul>
  42. 70. Types of Container Terminal <ul><li>Feeder </li></ul><ul><li>Mainline </li></ul><ul><li>Hub </li></ul>
  43. 71. Feeder Terminal <ul><li>Definition: Where vessels directly calling at POD/POO cannot be supported and so containers have to be handled through smaller vessels for connecting to mother vessels calling at other ports/terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow berth – less then 10 m draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor/inadequate infrastructure/equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low productivity </li></ul></ul>
  44. 72. Mainline Terminal <ul><li>Definition: Where vessels calling directly at POD/POO can be serviced </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modestly high draft – 12 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quay length – upto 300 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good productivity – 50-70 moves/vessel hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient exchange per call </li></ul></ul>
  45. 73. HUB Terminal <ul><li>Definition: Where mega ships (more than 6000 tues) with container for several ports can be serviced </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft more than 14.5 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quay length in excess of 330 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipped with many high capability quay cranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large backup area (yard) – more than 10000 tue cap. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good hinterland connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity in excess of 120 moves/hour </li></ul></ul>
  46. 74. Receipt / Delivery Operation Sites <ul><li>Container Freight Station </li></ul><ul><li>Inland Container Depot </li></ul>
  47. 75. Container Freight Station (CFS) <ul><li>To provide place for storing import/export FCL containers </li></ul><ul><li>To provide facilities for completing customs/documentation formalities before delivery/shipment </li></ul><ul><li>To destuff LCL import containers and to provide space for their storage before delivery </li></ul><ul><li>To receive and consolidate individual export consignments and stuff them as LCL cargo </li></ul>
  48. 76. Definition of FCL/LCL <ul><li>FCL : Full Container Load </li></ul><ul><li>LCL : Less than Container Load </li></ul>
  49. 77. Container Freight Station <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Yard </li></ul><ul><li>Shed : Ramp / Plinth </li></ul><ul><li>Reefer points </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation centre </li></ul><ul><li>Gate </li></ul>
  50. 80. Inland Container Depot (ICD) <ul><li>Similar to CFS but at upcountry / hinterland </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Dry port </li></ul><ul><li>First in Bangalore in 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Today 55 ICDs </li></ul><ul><li>Another 25 expected </li></ul><ul><li>Share of ICD Containers is 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to increase to 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Delhi Freight Corridor (DFC) </li></ul>
  51. 83. Delhi Fright Corridor <ul><li>Delhi – Howrah </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi – Mumbai (JNPT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via Ahemadabad – Pallanpur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via Kota – Ratlam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimated Cost : Rs. 12000 crore </li></ul><ul><li>Double line </li></ul><ul><li>Double stack with welled wagons </li></ul>
  52. 85. CONTAINER METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Systems for terminal operation </li></ul><ul><li>Chassis Stand Alone </li></ul><ul><li>Straddle Carrier Stand Alone </li></ul><ul><li>Straddle Carrier – Tractor / Trailer </li></ul><ul><li>Transtainer – Tractor / Trailer </li></ul><ul><li>Front Loader </li></ul>
  53. 90. Handling Systems Comparison Parameter Chassis Straddle Carrier Transtainer Space Requirement Very Large Medium Small Cost High Moderate Medium Manning Level More men / low skill Less men / High skill More men / Medium skill Selectivity Very good Medium Low Quay crane efficiency Low Very good Bad Container damage Very Low High Medium Maintenance Very low Very high Low Computerisations Limited Medium High
  54. 91. Container Equipment <ul><li>Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane </li></ul><ul><li>Straddle Carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Transtainer : RTG / RMGC </li></ul><ul><li>Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT </li></ul><ul><li>Spreader </li></ul>
  55. 93. Container Equipment <ul><li>Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane </li></ul><ul><li>Straddle Carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Transtainer : RTG / RMGC </li></ul><ul><li>Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT </li></ul><ul><li>Spreader </li></ul>
  56. 97. Container Equipment <ul><li>Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane </li></ul><ul><li>Straddle Carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Transtainer : RTG / RMGC </li></ul><ul><li>Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT </li></ul><ul><li>Spreader </li></ul>
  57. 102. Container Equipment <ul><li>Rail mounted Quay Gantry Crane </li></ul><ul><li>Straddle Carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Transtainer : RTG / RMGC </li></ul><ul><li>Front Loader: Reach Stacker / TLT </li></ul><ul><li>Spreader </li></ul>
  58. 107. CONTAINER EQUIPMENT <ul><li>SPREADER </li></ul><ul><li>Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Semi – automatic </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic </li></ul>
  59. 114. Container Management Information System (CMIS) <ul><li>Necessary for : </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Billing </li></ul><ul><li>Query </li></ul>
  60. 115. Container Management Information System (CMIS) <ul><li>Kinds of information: </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels related </li></ul><ul><li>Container related </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo related </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment related </li></ul>
  61. 116. Tracking <ul><li>T Card </li></ul><ul><li>Batch Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Real Time / Online </li></ul><ul><li>Bar Code </li></ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul>
  62. 117. Security & Surveillance <ul><li>Seal : </li></ul><ul><li> Strip </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle </li></ul><ul><li>E: RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Access Control : </li></ul><ul><li>Biometrics:fingerprint/ handgeometry/ </li></ul><ul><li>CC TV Eye:retinal/iris </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol : </li></ul><ul><li>I S P S </li></ul><ul><li>C S I </li></ul><ul><li>Scanner:X-ray/gamma </li></ul>
  63. 118. Containerisation : Future <ul><li>Container Volume: </li></ul>(in M tues) Year Global Indian 1980 20 0.1 2000 230 2.0 2005 330 5.5 2010 420 10.0 2020 700 20.0 CAGR 6% 15%
  64. 119. Containerisation : Future <ul><li>Container ship size </li></ul>Year Generation Type of ship Cap. In tues 1980 1 st Semi contr, roro, Cellular upto 750 1985 2 nd Dedicated cellular 750 - 1500 1990 3 rd Sub panamax 1500-3000 1995 4 th Panamax 3000-5000 2000 5 th Post panamax 5000-6000 2005 6 th Super post panamax 6000-7500 2010 Above 6 th ULCS / Mega Above 7500
  65. 121. Container: Future <ul><li>Container productivity </li></ul>(No.of moves) Year Crane/hour Vessel/hour 1998 18 30 2000 20 40 2002 22 60 2004 28 80 2006 32 100 2010 40 150
  66. 122. Container: Future <ul><li>Container crane outreach </li></ul>Year Across 1980 9 1990 13 1995 15 2000 19 2005 22 2010 25
  67. 124. Potential Indian Container Ports <ul><li>West Coast </li></ul><ul><li>JNPT </li></ul><ul><li>Mundra </li></ul><ul><li>East Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Vizag </li></ul><ul><li>South Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>Vallarpadam </li></ul>

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