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Design Thinking?

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Introduction to a methodology and mindset @ Design Thinking Week Warsaw 2015, Centrum Zarządzania Innowacjami i Transferem Technologii Politechniki Warszawskiej

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Design Thinking?

  1. 1. Design Thinking? Introduction to a methodology and mindset Nov 6th, Design Thinking Week Warsaw 2015, Centrum Zarządzania Innowacjami i Transferem Technologii Politechniki Warszawskiej W A R S Z A W A Politechnika Warszawska
  2. 2. 2 Solving wrong problems precisely “How can we maximize the number of child patient scans per day while reducing the cost of anesthetizing?” Image Credit: By ISAF Headquarters Public Affairs Office (originally posted to Flickr as 100410-F-7713A-002) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APreoxygenation_before_anesthetic_induction.jpg
  3. 3. 2 Solving wrong problems precisely “How can we maximize the number of child patient scans per day while reducing the cost of anesthetizing?” BEST PRACTICE General anesthesia should be preferred in preterm or small children as safety and success are predictable. For optimal performance trained, experienced and certified personnel, appropriate drugs for the individual patient risk profile and sufficient monitoring equipment are essential. Anesthesia or sedation for MRI in children. (2010), Schulte-Uentrop L1, Goepfert MS. Image Credit: By ISAF Headquarters Public Affairs Office (originally posted to Flickr as 100410-F-7713A-002) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APreoxygenation_before_anesthetic_induction.jpg
  4. 4. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  5. 5. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  6. 6. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  7. 7. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  8. 8. 4Image Credit: © 2011 General Electric Company (http://www.gehealthcare.com/promo/advseries/adventure_series.html) Seeing the world through new eyes
  9. 9. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  10. 10. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  11. 11. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  12. 12. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  13. 13. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  14. 14. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2) Competitive Advantage Decades Years Quarters Months z
  15. 15. Expertise Empathy Explore ExecuteRe-Frame SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND Talk to Experts Research Experience Immerse Observe Engage Share Synthesize Point of View Brainstorm Visualize Prototype Insight Big Idea Sticky Takeaway PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION The ‘process’
  16. 16. 7 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTANDUNDERSTAND OBSERVE
  17. 17. 8 Image Credit: © MIT AgeLab, Age Gain Now Empathy System; Photos by Nathan Fried-Lipski Experience what your user might experience … Immerse. Observe. Engage.
  18. 18. 9 Image Credit: © IDEO 2009, www.ideo.com Experience what your user might experience … Immerse. Observe. Engage.
  19. 19. 10 Image Credit: © IDEO 2009, www.ideo.com Experience what your user might experience … Immerse. Observe. Engage.
  20. 20. 11 Be a fly on the wall: The art of unobtrusive research … Immerse. Observe. Engage. Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
  21. 21. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) MESSAGES
  22. 22. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) Religion: Christian MESSAGES
  23. 23. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) Religion: Christian Workaround: Beer Cover MESSAGES
  24. 24. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) Religion: Christian Workaround: Beer Cover Potential »Distribution Partner« MESSAGES
  25. 25. 13 Enlightening conversations … Immerse. Observe. Engage.
  26. 26. 14 Enlightening conversations … Immerse. Observe. Engage. Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
  27. 27. Methods triangulation 15 THE RIGHT BALANCE? What people experience. TRY: Immersion Participatory Design What people do. LOOK: Observations Ethnography What people say they do. ASK: Engagement Contextual Interviewing
  28. 28. MARKET RESEARCH INSIGHTS RESEARCH “Can you prove that?” “No, not yet, but I can inspire you.” 16 Image Credit: after Polaine, A., Løvlie, L., & Reason, B. (2013). Service design: from insight to implementation. (1st ed.). Rosenfeld Media.; Lightbulb Icon → Idea designed by Björn Andersson from The Noun Project 100 People 10 Truths 10 People 100 Insights
  29. 29. 17 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND POINT OF VIEW
  30. 30. 19 Space serves as an important facilitator for design synthesis War rooms
  31. 31. 20 Perspective 1 Perspective 2 Perspective 3 Capture structured data Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Provider of Services Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Group of Stakeholders Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Supplier Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Public Institution Actor
  32. 32. 21 Perspective 4 Perspective 5 Distill and explore it from a meta perspective
  33. 33. Personas Affinity Diagramming Cause-and-Effect- / Flow Models Journey Mapping Stakeholder Maps Storyboards Physical Walk-Throughs Service Blueprints etc. ... 22 A random selection of examples Building »models of reality«
  34. 34. 23 Making sense out of a »mess of data«
  35. 35. 24Image Credit: © 2011 General Electric Company (http://www.gehealthcare.com/promo/advseries/adventure_series.html) User: Kids with cancer. Need: Play and have fun. Feel like a normal child. Insight: Kids participate in everything once they perceive it as an adventure. “How might we turn MRI scans for children (fearing »medical treatment«) into an adventure?”
  36. 36. 25Image Credit: © Embrace (www.embraceglobal.org) User: Young moms in poor rural areas in developing countries. Need: Always carry baby close to body equals being a good mother. Insight: Low cultural acceptance in many countries to »leave babies alone« (e.g. in incubators). “How might we create an non-electrical infant incubator that keeps babies close to mother’s body?”
  37. 37. 26 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND IDEATE
  38. 38. 27 “How might we design a solar charging system that reduces risk and perceived risk theft?”
  39. 39. 27
  40. 40. 28 Image Credit: Jan Schmiedgen (www.schmiedgen.eu) What do users really expect? Idea Generation
  41. 41. 31 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND PROTOTYPE
  42. 42. Prototype fidelity and representations 32 Looks like Works like Interacts like Product Service/Experience Space Story Source: © d.School Stanford
  43. 43. Prototype fidelity and representations 32 Looks like Works like Interacts like Product Service/Experience Space Story Source: © d.School Stanford
  44. 44. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
  45. 45. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #1 Experience: Augmentation
  46. 46. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #1 Experience: Augmentation
  47. 47. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation
  48. 48. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation 45 MIN
  49. 49. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #3 Try & Iterate:Shape, Size, Weight #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation 45 MIN
  50. 50. ½ HOUR 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #3 Try & Iterate:Shape, Size, Weight #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation 45 MIN
  51. 51. Google Glass’ Hi-fi Prototyping 34Source: http://www.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Early-Google-Glass-prototypes.png
  52. 52. 35 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPEPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND TEST
  53. 53. 36Image Credit: Service Design Berlin (Martin Jordan)
  54. 54. OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND Going broad to go narrow “solving” “solving”“seeking”“seeking” PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION Initial understanding of problem increasing complexity increasing certainty Problem definition: “reframing”
  55. 55. OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND “solving” “solving”“seeking”“seeking” PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION Initial understanding of problem increasing complexity increasing certainty Problem definition: “reframing” No need to fear the »model mayhem« EMPATHIZE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TEST DEFINE
  56. 56. Convergence-Divergence ID.IIT: Analysis-Synthesis Engine Service Design (UK) »Design Chaos« Spirit of Creation (UK) St. Gallen d.school Potsdam IDEO (Educators Toolkit) d.school Stanford Beckman & Barry Bill Moggridge Stanford’s d.Modes Jeanne Liedtka and Tim Ogilvie Stanford’s Necktie Flare ID.IIT: Vijay Kumar 39 ! Diamond 1: Direction setting Diamond 2: Service design Diamond 3: Service production Create SelectInitiateInitiate Create Select Define Define Sustain Vision Document Service Blueprint Create SelectInitiate Define Assimilating Converging Diverging Accommodating Active Experimentation Abstract Conceptualization Concrete Experience Reflective Observation Imperatives Problem Finding Solution Finding Problem Selecting Solution Selecting SolutionsObservations Frameworks etc. No need to fear the »model mayhem« ABSTRACT CONCRETE DISCOVERY INTERPRETATION IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION EVOLUTION
  57. 57. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  58. 58. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Finding Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  59. 59. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Selecting Problem Finding Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  60. 60. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Selecting Solution Finding Problem Finding Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  61. 61. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Selecting Solution Finding Problem Finding Solution Selecting Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  62. 62. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  63. 63. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  64. 64. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  65. 65. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  66. 66. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  67. 67. Balancing out ‘reliability bias’ and ‘decision attitude’ 42 Business People Designer 100% Reliability 100% Validity Reliability vs. Validity a fundamental predilection gap 50/50 Mix Martin, R. L. (2009). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Studies, Market research,’ Past Experiences said ... This interesting extreme Case tells Us …
  68. 68. Balancing out ‘reliability bias’ and ‘decision attitude’ 42 Business People Designer 100% Reliability 100% Validity Reliability vs. Validity a fundamental predilection gap 50/50 Mix Martin, R. L. (2009). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Studies, Market research,’ Past Experiences said ... This interesting extreme Case tells Us … BEST PRACTICE General anesthesia should be preferred in preterm or small children as safety and success are predictable. For optimal performance trained, experienced and certified personnel, appropriate drugs for the individual patient risk profile and sufficient monitoring equipment are essential. Anesthesia or sedation for MRI in children. (2010), Schulte-Uentrop L1, Goepfert MS.
  69. 69. 43 People and Human Values Desirability Technology Feasibility Business Viability
  70. 70. 43 People and Human Values Desirability Technology Feasibility Business Viability
  71. 71. 44Image Credit: © 2011-2012 General Electric Company MRI Scan Technology Adventure Frame Cost Avoidance Less sedations, more patients
  72. 72. The culture aspect 45© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  73. 73. 46 The culture aspect © 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  74. 74. The culture aspect 47© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  75. 75. 48 The culture aspect © 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  76. 76. Problem Discovery Mindset + Customer Discovery Appetite + Structured Unstructured Process + Encouraging Working Culture + Sanity and Reason = Design Thinking 49My personal inadmissible and non-scientific simplification of what DT is.
  77. 77. Some Recommended Literature: Beckman, S. L., & Barry, M. (2007). Innovation as a Learning Process: Embedding Design Thinking. California Management Review, 50(1), 25–56. Boland Jr., R., & Collopy, F. (2004). Managing as Designing (1st ed.). Stanford: Stanford Business Books. Brown, T. (2009). Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation: How Design Thinking Can Transform Organizations and Inspire Innovation. New York: Harper Business. Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. Design Issues, 8(2), 5–21. Cooper, A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2001). The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America’s Leading Design Firm (1st ed.). New York: Crown Business. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2005). The Ten Faces of Innovation: IDEO’s Strategies for Defeating the Devil’s Advocate and Driving Creativity Throughout Your Organization. New York: Doubleday. Kimbell, L. (2009, September). Beyond Design Thinking: Design-as-practice and designs-in-practice. Presentation Paper, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. Krippendorff, K. (2005). Semantic Turn: New Foundations for Design. Boca Raton, Fla.; London: CRC. Kuhn, T. (2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition (50th anniversary ed.). University of Chicago Press. Kumar, V. (2012). 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization (1. Auflage.). John Wiley & Sons. Kumar, V., & Whitney, P. (2007). Daily life, not markets: customer-centered design. Journal of Business Strategy, 28(4), 46–58. Liedtka, J. (2000). In Defense of Strategy as Design. California Management Review, 42(3), 8–30. Liedtka, J., & Ogilvie, T. (2011). Designing for growth : a design thinking tool kit for managers. New York: Columbia University Press - Columbia Business School Publishing. Martin, R. L. (2009a). The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win Through Integrative Thinking. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Martin, R. L. (2009b). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Nagji, B., & Tuff, G. (2012). Managing Your Innovation Portfolio - Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 1, 2013, . Ouden, E. den. (2011). Innovation Design: Creating Value for People, Organizations and Society (1st Edition.). Springer London. Owen, C. L. (2005a, May 14). Societal Responsibilities. - Growing the Role of Design. . International Conference on Planning and Design, National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan. Owen, C. L. (2005b, October 21). Design Thinking: What It Is, Why It Is Different, Where It Has New Value. . Presentation Paper, Gwanju, Korea. Owen, C. L. (2007). Design Thinking: Notes on its Nature and Use. Design Research Quarterly, 2(1), 16–27. Simon, H. A. (1996). Sciences of the Artificial (3 ed.). The Mit Press. Suri, J. F. (2005). Thoughtless Acts?: Observations on Intuitive Design (Ideo, Ed.). Chronicle Books. Ulla Johansson, J. W. The emperor’s new clothes or the magic wand? The past, present and future of design thinking. . Conference paper - peer reviewed, Verganti, R. (2009). Design Driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating What Things Mean. Harvard Business Press. Wetter Edman, K. (2011, September). Service Design - A Conceptualization of an emerging Practice. Licentiate Thesis (PhD), Göteborg: Göteborgs Universitet. Konstnärliga Fakulteten. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/26679. @Jan_Schmiedgen

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