Sustainable development & governance


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 11/09/11 Perez KSI-ECST Amsterdam June 2009
  • s
  • s
  • Sustainable development & governance

    1. 1. Sustainable Development & Governance Jan Rotmans Rotterdam, 05-01-2011
    2. 2. <ul><li>DILEMMAS OF </li></ul><ul><li>SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul>
    3. 3. sustainable development <ul><li>‘ Sustainable development is a development </li></ul><ul><li>that meets the needs of the present generation </li></ul><ul><li>without compromising the ability of future </li></ul><ul><li>generations to meet their own needs’ </li></ul>
    4. 4. sustainable development <ul><li>normative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>norm is put on intergenerational equity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>subjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we cannot objectively establish what is worth to be saved for future generations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ambiguous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contradicting goals of satisfying needs of current and future generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 200 definitions of sustainable development exist </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Sustainable Development <ul><li>complex, subjective and normative </li></ul><ul><li>numerous definitions and interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>different interpretations rooted in our value systems </li></ul><ul><li>nu single, unifying approach that fits all </li></ul><ul><li> contested notion </li></ul>
    6. 6. Implications <ul><li>It does not make sense to come up with another </li></ul><ul><li>definition of sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>we can develop a common and shared interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>of what sustainability means in a particular context. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>ASSESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul>
    8. 8. Assessing Sustainable Development <ul><li>needs to be based on sound principles for making </li></ul><ul><li>trade-offs between values, domains, scales, impacts </li></ul><ul><li>and strategies explicit and visible </li></ul><ul><li>two dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analytical dimension: assessing domains, scales, impacts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires an ordering framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process dimension: assessing values in discourse; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires a process architecture </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Assessing sustainable development <ul><li>d efine number of overarching, sound principles for assessing trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT </li></ul><ul><li>using plural values in a participatory approach with stakeholders in particular context </li></ul><ul><li>HOW </li></ul><ul><li>co-evolutionary approach: combines what and how </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> top-down and bottom-up </li></ul>
    10. 10. Assessing sustainable development <ul><li>search for commonalities in diverging interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>these commonalities are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is an intergenerational phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operates at different scale levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>covers social-cultural, economic, ecological and institutional domains or dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a practical choice could involve system boundaries in: </li></ul><ul><li>time [25-50 years] </li></ul><ul><li>space [macro- and micro-level] </li></ul><ul><li>domain [social, economic, ecological] </li></ul>
    11. 11. ‘ What’ is assessed? <ul><li>Overarching Principles </li></ul><ul><li>no structural negative impacts as a result of trade-offs between: </li></ul><ul><li>- generations </li></ul><ul><li>- geographical scales </li></ul><ul><li>- temporal scales </li></ul><ul><li>temporal negative impact = unavoidable </li></ul><ul><li>structural negative impact = win – loose </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering Framework </li></ul>
    12. 12. Sustainability ordering framework Multiple-domain (multiple-value) model Social-cultural value Economic value Environmental value
    13. 13. ‘ How’ is it assessed? <ul><li>Selective Participatory Approach </li></ul><ul><li>selective but representative group of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>involve people from government, business, NGO’s and knowledge institutions </li></ul><ul><li>don’t jump into conclusions immediately but explore multitude of promising options </li></ul><ul><li>searching, experimenting and learning </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Top-down and Bottum-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use an ordering framework based on sustainability principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design a participatory process with selective group of stakeholders, using this framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organize a reflexive search and learning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessing trade-offs [analytical dimension] and assessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>values in discourse [process dimension] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Integrated Sustainability Assessment [ISA] </li></ul></ul>Assessment process in practice
    15. 15. Integrated Sustainability Assessment <ul><li>a cyclical, participatory process of scoping , envisioning </li></ul><ul><li>experimenting and learning through which a shared </li></ul><ul><li>interpretation of sustainability for a specific context </li></ul><ul><li>is developed and applied in an integrated manner </li></ul><ul><li>in order to explore solutions to persistent problems of </li></ul><ul><li>unsustainable development </li></ul>
    16. 16. ISA framework Envisioning stage [sustainability vision with pathways] Scoping stage [shared interpretation of what sustainability means] Experimental stage [testing visions, pathways and policy options] Learning and evaluating stage [learning-by-doing and doing-by-learning ]
    17. 17. ISA is top-down ánd bottom-up <ul><li>co-evolution means that top-down and bottom-up approaches co-evolve and co-exist: the approaches are strongly intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>ISA-approach is top-down because it has underlying sustainability principles [intergenerationality, balance between domains, plurality of values, etc.] </li></ul><ul><li>ISA-approach is bottom-up because it uses an ordering framework based on social-cultural, economic, environmental dimensions and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>ISA-approach is a scoping and envisioning process where a shared problem perception and sustainability vision is developed by stakeholders </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>SUSTAINABILITY TRANSITIONS </li></ul>
    19. 19. Persistent problems <ul><li>our society faces a number of persistent problems </li></ul><ul><li>many examples: climate change, energy supply, </li></ul><ul><li>water problem, mobility problem, agriculture, health care </li></ul><ul><li>persistence is due to system failures that are deeply rooted </li></ul><ul><li>in our societal structures </li></ul><ul><li>persistence is symptom of unsustainability </li></ul><ul><li>incremental improvement not enough to solve persistent problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transformative change is needed </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Transition <ul><ul><li>fundamental change of structure, culture and practices in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>societal (sub)system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structure: physical infrastructure, economic infrastructure (market, consumption, production), institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(rules, regulations, collective actors) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>culture: collective set of values, norms, perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(shared orientation), paradigm (defining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems and solutions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practices: routines, behaviour, ways of handling, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implementation at the individual level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incumbent structure, culture and practices need to be broken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>down and new (sustainable) ones need to be built up </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Breakthrough to sustainable society ” Widespread application of new paradigms Distribution and diffusion of societal advantages Battle between old and new paradigm Build up and decay of institutions energy Time Consolidatiion transport fisheries health care agriculture 20 - 30 years Acceleration phase Predevelopment phase 20 – 30 years Tipping Point We are here
    22. 22. Multiple Levels Macro-level autonomous trends, paradigms, slow developments Meso-level regime: dominant structures, cultures and practices (but also niche regimes) Micro-level fast developments: innovative ideas, projects, techniques, niche actors
    23. 23. Examples of transitions <ul><li>from coal energy supply to gas energy supply </li></ul><ul><li>from extensive to intensive agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>from an industrial - to service - to knowledge economy </li></ul><ul><li>from fossil fuel based energy supply to renewable </li></ul><ul><li>energy supply </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not spontaneous processes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Water transition: from stemming water to accomodating water <ul><li>Strategy of Pumping-Draining-Diking turned out unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>increasing pressure from land onto water and from water to land </li></ul><ul><li>This has lead to a change in perspective </li></ul><ul><li>from controlling water to giving water more space </li></ul><ul><li>Seed for change in perspective arose decades ago within a small group of people from outside the water world </li></ul><ul><li>visionaries from nature development and spatial planning </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of transition water policy is still difficult </li></ul><ul><li>many practical barriers hinder implementation </li></ul>
    25. 25. Why do transitions often fail? <ul><ul><li>game, rules and players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transition requires a new structure, culture and practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transition requires new rules, new players and new game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dominant players have too many interests to defend and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>don ’ t want to change the rules drastically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only new players can ‘ break open ’ the game and change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more, different, better </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Multi-Phase concept
    27. 27. Transition patterns <ul><li>regime: dominant structure, culture and practices with power </li></ul><ul><li>at systems level </li></ul><ul><li>niche: upcoming, diverging structure, culture and practices </li></ul><ul><li>at lower scale level </li></ul><ul><li>pattern: built up of mechanisms and a manifestation of such a pattern is a pathway. </li></ul><ul><li>Key pattern: niches emerge and cluster and by empowering a niche </li></ul><ul><li>cluster a niche-regime unfolds. The niche-regime becomes more powerful whereas the regime is weakening and finally the niche-regime takes over the incumbent regime that is transformed </li></ul>
    28. 28. Transition patterns <ul><ul><li>regime will try to maintain and defend its existing power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and will try to eliminate or assimilate niche-regime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regime has diverse defence mechanisms in the form of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resistances: institutional, governance, technological, economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and social resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>especially newcomers (niches), together with ‘change-inclined’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regime actors can break through the existing order and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transition = regime-shift = shift in power </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>TRANSITION GOVERNANCE </li></ul>
    30. 30. Transition management <ul><li>new governance mode that attempts to resolve persistent societal problems. Full command-and-control of these problems is not </li></ul><ul><li>possible. However, what we can do is ‘manage’ these problems </li></ul><ul><li>in terms of adjusting, adapting and influencing by organizing a </li></ul><ul><li>joint searching and learning process, focused on sustainable ways </li></ul><ul><li>(Rotmans, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>rooted in two different strands of science </li></ul><ul><li>complex systems science and new governance theories </li></ul>
    31. 31. Transition management <ul><ul><li>principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>put energy in frontrunners and not in the pack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bring frontrunners together in protected spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop a long-term agenda, incl. vision + pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start with portfolio of transition experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create new coalitions around pathways & experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>searching, learning, experimenting </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Transition approach cycle vision, pathways, transition agenda transition arena transition experiments evaluation, monitoring learning
    33. 33. society Transition arenas Regular policy arena <ul><li>- Short term </li></ul><ul><li>- Peloton </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental change </li></ul><ul><li>Problem- and goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>- Long term </li></ul><ul><li>- Innovators </li></ul><ul><li>System-innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem- and goal searching </li></ul>The transition arena space for experimenting and envisioning
    34. 34. Transition experiments <ul><ul><li>s ocietal experiments with high risks (chance of failure) and a high potential to contribute to a transition process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to manage portfolio of transition experiments? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deepening [learn as much as possible from an experiment] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broadening [repeating an experiment in a different context] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scaling up [anchoring of an experiment in the regime ] </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Transition Experiments <ul><ul><li>energy delivering greenhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rush hour avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electric vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCS close to residential area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainable roofs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory free zones </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Ongoing transition processes <ul><li>six Dutch ministries have official transition policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction sector transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care transition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>regional governments experiment with transition policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provinces Zeeland, Flevoland, North-Holland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions such as Zuidvleugel, Texel, Haarlemmermeer, Twente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities such as Almere, Rotterdam </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Conclusions <ul><li>sustainable development is a contested notion </li></ul><ul><li>sustainability assessment is pluralistic and context-dependent </li></ul><ul><li>transition thinking offers new perspective for persistent problems </li></ul><ul><li>transition management seems a promising new governance mode </li></ul><ul><li>principles underlying transition management are universal but </li></ul><ul><li>the application is context-specific </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>ROTTERDAM CITY PORT </li></ul>
    39. 41. Rotterdam City Port = 1600 ha of Rotterdam in transition = long term transformation [25-50 jaar] = experimental garden for innovation of the city and harbour = long term sustainability vision City Port [2030] = execution programme 2010-2020 = 12 business cases
    40. 42. Rotterdam City Port <ul><li> organic development trajectory </li></ul><ul><li>sustainability vision </li></ul><ul><li>arenas with frontrunners </li></ul><ul><li>rules for development </li></ul><ul><li>icons [floating pavillion, clean tech delta] </li></ul><ul><li> vision-action intertwined </li></ul>
    41. 43. Sustainability Rules for City Port <ul><li> top 10 </li></ul><ul><li>1. energy neutral building </li></ul><ul><li>2. climate proof building </li></ul><ul><li>3. development on the water </li></ul><ul><li>4. reuse of existing materials/products </li></ul><ul><li> 5. green als carrier of development </li></ul>
    42. 44. Sustainability Rules for City Port <ul><li> top 10 </li></ul><ul><li> 6. diversity as starting point </li></ul><ul><li> 7. human standard as starting point </li></ul><ul><li> 8. building in cultural historical perspective </li></ul><ul><li> 9. sustainable exploitation and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li> 10. sustainable knowledge as economic driver </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    43. 45. Sustainability Rules for City Port <ul><li>translation into scale levels </li></ul><ul><li>cascade of sustainability rules of game </li></ul><ul><li>translation into 4 different scale levels </li></ul><ul><li>the sub city port level [large sub areas] </li></ul><ul><li>the district / neighbourhoood level </li></ul><ul><li>the building / house level </li></ul><ul><li>[the Rotterdam Energy Approach] </li></ul>
    44. 46. Icons
    45. 47. Clean Tech Delta incubator for new economy in Rotterdam and the Netherlands will be located in Merwe/Vierhavens started by business companies (frontrunners) and municipality upcycling of waste, clean water, energy production, biomass living lab = breeding place
    46. 48. Floating Pavillion floating pavilion is learning exercise for floating district stepping stone floating district will be a learning exercise for floating city learning-by-doing and doing-by-learning
    47. 49. Dutch Research Institute For Transitions
    48. 51. Floating City Dutch Research Institute For Transitions water recreation ecology: wetlands technology: floating foundation energy: decentral heat/cold storage mobility: floating highway, water taxi living / working units
    49. 54. Objectives <ul><li>in 2010 a Floating Pavillion </li></ul><ul><li>in 2015 a Floating District </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 2.5000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>in 2020 a Floating City </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 10-15.000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>a floating china town? </li></ul>
    53. 58. Conclusions <ul><li>clean tech will be the motor of a new, sustainable economy </li></ul><ul><li>City Port Rotterdam is transformed into a sustainable living, </li></ul><ul><li>working and recreation area </li></ul><ul><li>this transition process takes about 30 years and requires an </li></ul><ul><li>organic development trajectory </li></ul><ul><li>floating city might become th é icon of a sustainable City </li></ul><ul><li>Port Rotterdam </li></ul>