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Psed 101


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Psed 101

  2. 2. 19th century era of nursery school-kindergarten education that heavily influenced the American movement Charitable enterprises - earliest institutions - founded to care for the children of the rural and urban poor while their parents and older siblings worked
  3. 3. 1767: Johann Friedrich Oberlin FRANCE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Salles d’asile (rooms of the asylum/hall of refuge) – infant school for the care and schooling of small children while their parents worked in the fields 1833: French government made this part of the national educational system similar schools had been founded in a number of French and German cities
  4. 4. 1767: Johann Friedrich Oberlin FRANCE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Principles of Oberlin’s Instructional methods • Expose children to clean, warm, and cheerful environments • Provide safe place • Keep children busy by teaching useful and practical skills • Teach about nature • Teach contours of the land and the wider world • Teach manners, cleanliness, hygiene • Awaken intelligence and simulate imagination • Create in the hearts of children a love for God • Reduce isolation by teaching French
  5. 5. 1816: Robert Owen SCOTLAND ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ social reformer Institute for the Formation of Character - part of his model community to create a better society - took care of children (18 mos – 10 yrs old) of workers at cotton mills - has separate infant classes (2 – 5 yrs old) - campaigns for education as key to eradicate society’s problems, and make people happier and more fulfilled - evening class for adults
  6. 6. 1816: Robert Owen SCOTLAND ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Rules in Infant School • Never beat any one of the children or to threaten them in any word or action or to use abusive terms • Tell the infants and children that they must on all occasions do all they could to make their playfellows happy • No child should be forced in any way • Children were not to be annoyed with books
  7. 7. 1829: Ferrante Aporti ITALY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Roman Catholic priest dissatisfied with the progress children made in elementary Infant School - intellectual, physical, and moral training for preschool children - con: children were required to sit in rows in large classrooms, recite lessons, and spend hours doing reading, writing, and arithmetic
  8. 8. 1837: Freidrich Froebel GERMANY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ • believed that educating children was similar to cultivating plants; and • childhood was a special phase in life (which an individual learns a lot through play) • coined the term kindergarten (children’s garden) • 25 years after his death, kindergartens had been started in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Canada, Great Britain, Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States
  9. 9. 1837: Freidrich Froebel GERMANY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Educational Philosophy • provide an environment for young children that fostered self-direction, spontaneous play, and close relationship with nature • children have innate creativity • children should not be subjected to formal instruction • children should learn through ‘self-activity’ – play and imitation • children should be allowed to rest
  10. 10. 1907: Maria Montessori ITALY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ researcher in educational theory who had studied medicine in Rome 1899: began her studies of educational problems while working with culturally deprived and mentally deficient children at Orthophrenic School Casa dei Bambini (the children’s home) – applied her theories to normal children
  11. 11. 1907: Maria Montessori ITALY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Montessori Method • stresses cleanliness and self-help • children should be free to succeed and learn without restriction or criticism • children learn in their own way at their own pace • Freedom to work must be combined with self- discipline and respect for authority
  12. 12. BEFORE WWI: McMillan Margaret and Rachel McMillan (ENGLAND) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ • group training of children • established nursery schools in the slum districts of London to help improve the physical and mental condition of children • established an open-air nursery for poor children in Deptford • aimed to make up for any neglect of the children at home and to provide early schooling and care
  13. 13. BEFORE WWI: McMillan Margaret and Rachel McMillan (ENGLAND) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ McMillan’s Method • Concerned for the health and well-being of working class children • Stressed the need for health care and proper nourishment, hygiene, exercise, and fresh air • Allowed free access to play areas and gardens and was not predicated upon a fixed time schedule