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world production of edible mushrooms and edible mushrooms of pakistan

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edible mushroom production and edible mushrooms of pakistan

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world production of edible mushrooms and edible mushrooms of pakistan

  1. 1. World Production of Edible Mushrooms & Edible Mushrooms of Pakistan 1
  2. 2. 2 Presented to: Dr. A.R. Niazi Presented by: Jannat Iftikhar (B11-16) M. Awais (B11-24) Fiza Ayub (B11-25) MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
  3. 3. Mushrooms • The large, macroscopic, spore-bearing, fruiting bodies of fungi are generally referred to as mushrooms. • Of the estimated 1.5 million species of fungi, about 69,000 produce the fruiting bodies we call mushrooms. 3
  4. 4. Mycophagy • Mycophagy, the act of consuming mushrooms, dates back to ancient times. • First reliable evidence of mushroom consumption dates to several hundred years BC in China. • Ancient Romans and Greeks, particularly the upper classes, used mushrooms for culinary purposes. • The Greeks regarded them as providing strength for warriors in battles. • The more ancient Aztecs and the Egyptian pharaohs considered the edible fungus to be the food of the gods. 4
  5. 5. Edible Mushrooms • Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruiting bodies of several species of macrofungi. • Edible mushrooms are consumed by humans as comestibles for their nutritional value and medicinal value. • 2000 species from more than 30 genera are • regarded as prime edible mushrooms. • These mushrooms are wild but now many of the species are cultivated commercially. 5
  6. 6. Wild Edible Mushrooms 6
  7. 7. 7 Russula cyanoxantha Suillus luteus Laccaria laccata Calvatia gigantea
  8. 8. 8 Morchella esculenta Tuber aestivum Macrolapiota procera Armillaria mellae
  9. 9. 9 Hydnum repandum Cantherellus cibarius Craterallus tubaeformis Craterellus cornucopoides
  10. 10. 10 Boletus spp. Lactarius deliciosus Lepista nuda Coprinus comatus
  11. 11. Cultivated Edible Mushrooms 11
  12. 12. 12 Volveriella volvaceae Lentinus edodes Pleurotus sp Flammulina velutipes Auricularia auricula Tremella fuciformis
  13. 13. 13 Agrocybe aegerita Hysizygus tessulatus Pholiota nameko Agaricus bisporus
  14. 14. Mushroom Production • People have harvested mushrooms from the wild for thousands of years for food and medicines. • Chinese first cultivated Lentinula edodes around 1100 AD. • White button mushroom was fist cultivated in France in 1650. • Commercial production began in the United States in the 1880s. • Agaricus is the leading mushroom crop worldwide (30%) • Pleaurotus ranks second(25%) • Lentinula is third most cultivated mushroom worldwide (10%) 14
  15. 15. • Roughly 2000 mushroom species from more than 30 genera are regarded as prime edible (Chang, 1991). • But only 30 have been domesticated and 10 are grown commercially. Button, oyster, and shiitake mushrooms make up about 70% of the world’s production. • During the past 30 years, mushroom production worldwide increased twenty-fold, with much of that increase occurring in the 1980s and 1990s. • Asian countries continue to dominate world production and consumption. 15
  16. 16. The Global Mushroom Production • Global Scenario About the mushroom marketing, Stan Hughes said “Mushroom growers have mystified me for years. They put so much effort into growing and so little into selling”. • For effective and efficient marketing, especially export, it is necessary to understand the global trade vis-à-vis the sources of supply, potential regions of demand and consumption patterns. 16
  17. 17. The Global Mushroom Production as per FAO Statistics • The global mushroom production as per FAO Statistics was estimated at about 2.18 to 3.41 million tons over period of last ten years (1997-2007). • Since there was an increase of about 56% world mushroom production in last decades and estimates can be put on current production to be around 3.5 million tons. 17
  18. 18. Major Mushroom Producing Countries • China, USA, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, France, Italy, Ireland, Canada and UK are the leading producers. • The three major mushroom producing countries as FAO data China is leading in mushroom production accounts 70% of the total. 18
  19. 19. • USA is second followed by Europeans countries. • Production in European countries is confined to Germany, Italy, France, The Netherlands, Spain, Poland and others • In Asian countries the scenario is different and other species are also cultivated for commercial production. • World mushroom production (FAO Stat) is continuously increasing from 0.30 to 3.41 million tons over period of about last 50 years from 1961 to 2010. 19
  20. 20. Mushroom Market in Different Countries 1. USA: • Largest consumer. • Larges importer of canned mushroom. • The amount of imported canned mushroom by US is 64867 tons in 2007-08. • US export is relatively less as compared to the imports. • It was 7212 and 708 tons in 2007-08. • 8119 tons and 1281 tons in 2008-09 respectively. • Canada is importer. 20
  21. 21. 2. China: • Annual production of China is 15,68,532 metric tons and its import is 17,732 tons. • Global producer of the mushrooms and exporter of canned mushroom since 2004. • China is also largest consumer of mushrooms. • 95% of their production is used within the country only 5% is exported. 21
  22. 22. 3. India: • Indian production of edible mushrooms is about 250,000 tons annually. • Himalaya International has, mushroom production capacity and its production is anticipated to 9,000 metric tons of canned mushroom annually. • Other smaller units are also present with production capacity of 200-500 tons per acre. • Punjab, Gujrat, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and other places in the country. 22
  23. 23. 4. Indonesia: • The annual production of Indonesia is 18,392 metric tons per annually (2007). • A single mushroom growing company ETIRA grows 12775 tons of fresh mushrooms annually for canning and export. • It is principle exporter of USA. 23
  24. 24. 5. European Union Countries: • Largest producer. • Spain, Italy. France, Poland, The Netherlands. • Poland has become the largest volume producer of fresh mushrooms in Europe, growing 238000 tons of mushrooms annually. • German production was about 62,000 tons in 2012. • The Netherlands production was 250,000 tons. • Poland, 238,000 tons. • Spain, 98,000 tons. • France, 108,000 tons. 24
  25. 25. 6. Canada: • Its annual production was 73,257 tons (FAO,2007). • Mushroom production is located principally in two provinces, Ontario and British Columbia. • They accounts for 57% and 37% respectively. 25
  26. 26. Global Consumption • In 2007, global consumption amounted to 3.3 million tons. • China, the EU countries and the United States were the leading global consumers of mushrooms. • Other major consumers included Canada, Japan, Russia, Australia, and India. 26
  27. 27. 27 Source: Mushroom Industry Report (94003) August 31, 2011
  28. 28. Global Trade • Poland, Netherland, Ireland, China, Belgium, Lithuania, Canada and USA are the major mushroom exporting countries. • While countries like UK, Germany, France, Netherland, Belgium, Russian Federation and Japan import the mushroom from above said exporting countries. 28
  29. 29. Global Trade • Global exports of canned mushrooms amounted to 458,137 tons in 2008. • China accounting for 87 per cent of total export volume in 2008, (4,05,112 metric tons). • Other major global exporters in 2008 included Indonesia (18,392 metric tons) and India. • Global exports of fresh mushrooms averaged around 43,730 tons during 2004–07 before falling to 34802 tons in 2008. • Canada and the United States were the largest global exporters of fresh mushrooms in 2008, together accounting for nearly 80 per cent of the total export. 29
  30. 30. Global Trade • Global imports of canned mushrooms amounted to 292,267 tons in 2008, up by 12 per cent from 260,944 tons in 2004. • America and Russia accounts the largest share of global import. • Global imports of fresh mushrooms amounted to 90,879 tons in 2008, up by 42 per cent from 63,618 tons in 2004. • Russia (69,726 metric tons) and the United States together were the most important global import markets in 2008. • Canada, Norway, Malaysia, and Ukraine were other major markets. 30
  31. 31. • China is the largest producer and consumer of mushrooms in the world (15,68,523 metric tons production + 17,732 metric tons imports). • Followed by USA (3, 59,630 metric tons production + 68,123 metric tons imports) and Netherland (2,40,000 metric tons production + 7,884 metric tons imports) respectively. 31
  32. 32. • Netherland is the largest producer and consumer. • Poland is largest exporter. • UK largest importer. • France and Spain are also the larger producers as well as consumers. • From outside, China is largest consumer and producer as well. 32
  33. 33. Yield of Edible Mushrooms 33 Common name Scientific name World production Tonns/year Portobello Agaricus bisporus One million Paddy straw mushroom Volveriella volvacea 60,000 Enoki Flamulina velutipes 40,000 Land fish mushroom Morchella esculenta
  34. 34. Yield of Edible Mushrooms 34 Common name Scientific name World production Tonns/year Shiitake Lentinula edodes 150,000 Oyester mushroom Pleaurotus ostreatus 20,000 Nameko Pholiota nameko 15,000 Ear fungus Auricularia auricula 12,000 Truffles Tuber melanosporum 8000
  35. 35. Edible Mushrooms of Pakistan • 56 edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan. • 44 from KPK and Azad Kashmir. • Five from Punjab. • Four from Balochistan. • Three from Sindh 35
  36. 36. KPK & Azad Kashmir • M. esculenta • M. miyabearus • M. semilibra • M. smithiana • M. vulgaris • P. ostreatus • Truffles • Termitomyces macrocarpus • T. mammiformis • T. microcarpus • Volveriella volvacea • V. speciosa 36 • Agaricus bisporus • Agaicus sylvaticus • Armillaria melae • Boletus edulis • Bovista nigescens • Cantherallus citsarius • Coprinus comatus • Calvatia gigantean • Morchella conica • M. crassipes • M. delicosus • M. elata
  37. 37. Punjab 37 • Agaricus bisporus • Agaricus silvaticus • Coprinus comatus • C. atromentarius • Lycoperdon • Pleurotus cornucopiae • P. dryinus • P. ostreatus • Podaxis pitillaris • Volveriella volvacea • V. speciosa • V. bombycina
  38. 38. Sindh • Lycoperdon • Calvatia gigentea • Phellorina inguinance • Podaxis pistillaris 38
  39. 39. Balochistan • Agaricus rodmani • Phellorina inguinance • Lycoperdon sp. • Podaxis pistillaris 39
  40. 40. • The best quality mushrooms available in Pakistan are Oyster mushroom The white mushroom The phoenix ( grey) mushroom Pink oyster mushroom 40
  41. 41. • Pakistan exported 97.0 thousand kg mushrooms during the year 1999-2000 having value of US $ 0.69 million (GOP, 2000). • About 90 tons of mushrooms are exported to Europe from Pakistan every year. (Khan et al.) • Mushrooms earned $6.904 million foreign exchange for Pakistan. • About 18-25 thousand kilogram of morels (Morochella esculenta), which are found in Swat and Kaghan areas of Pakistan are annually exported to some European countries (Alam et. al., 2001). 41
  42. 42. Conclusion 42
  43. 43. References • Bryce Kendrick, The Fifth Kingdom, Pub., 01-Jan-2000. • Sultana et. al., diversity of edible mushrooms in Pakistan, Pakistan J. agric. Res. Vol. 20 NO. 1-2, 2007. • Behari Lal Dhar, Changing Global Scenerio in Mushroom Industry, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (ICMBMP8) 2014. • G.C. Wakchaure, Production and Marketing of Mushrooms: Global and National Scenario, may 19, 2014. • Tom Harrington and Maria Cullen, Assessment of wild edible fungal production in Irish woodlands, © COFORD 2008. • Danny L. Barney, Growing Mushrooms Commercially — Risks and Opportunities, 2000. • Khan et al., Impact Of Sawdust Using Various Woods For Effective Cultivation Of Oyster Mushroom, Pak. J. Bot., 44(1): 399-402, 2012. • Muhammad Zeeshan Farid & Dr Amjad Farooq, Mushroom farming: the fungal goldmine, The Express Tribune, October 1st, 2012. • Mushroom Industry Report (94003) August 31, 2011. 43
  44. 44. 44 Thank you
  45. 45. 45 Any question???

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